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वैश्विक तापन/ग्लोबल वार्मिंग के कारण और संभावित परिणाम कौन से हैं?
वर्तमान में मानवीय गतिविधियों के कारण उत्पन्न ग्रीनहाउस गैसों के प्रभावस्वरूप पृथ्वी के दीर्घकालिक औसत तापमान में हुई वृद्धि को वैश्विक तापन/ग्लोबल वार्मिंग कहा जाता है । ग्रीनहाउस गैसें पृथ्वी से बाहर जाने वाले ताप अर्थात दीर्घतरंगीय विकिरण को अवशोषित कर पृथ्वी के तापमान को बढ़ा देती हैं, इस प्रक्रिया को ‘ग्रीनहाउस प्रभाव’ कहते हैं । ग्रीन हाउस गैसों में मुख्यतः कार्बन डाई ऑक्साइड, मीथेन, ओज़ोन आदि गैसें शामिल हैं ।1880 से 2012 की अवधि के दौरान पृथ्वी के औसत सतही तापमान में 0.85°C की वृद्धि दर्ज की गयी है ।1906 से 2005 की अवधि के दौरान पृथ्वी के औसत सतही तापमान में 0.74±0.18°C की वृद्धि दर्ज की गयी है ।
वैश्विक तापन के कारण
वैश्विक तापन का प्रमुख कारण मानवीय गतिविधियों के कारण वातावरण में ग्रीनहाउस गैसों की मात्रा में वृद्धि होना है । ग्रीनहाउस गैसों में मुख्य रूप से कार्बन डाई ऑक्साइड(CO 2 ), मीथेन(CH 4 ) , नाइट्रस ऑक्साइड(N 2 O), ओज़ोन (O 3 ), क्लोरोफ़्लोरो कार्बन (CFCs) आदि गैसें शामिल हैं । किसी भी ग्रीनहाउस गैस का प्रभाव वातावरण में उसकी मात्रा में हुई वृद्धि, वातावरण में उसके रहने की अवधि और उसके द्वारा अवशोषित विकिरण के तरंगदैर्ध्य (Wavelength of Radiation) पर निर्भर करता है। ग्रीनहाउस गैसों में कार्बन डाई ऑक्साइड(CO 2 ) वातावरण में सर्वाधिक मात्रा में उपस्थित है । ग्रीनहाउस गैसों उत्सर्जन मुख्यतः जीवाश्म ईंधनों के दहन, उद्योगों, मोटर वाहनों, धान के खेतों, पशुओं की चराई, रेफ्रीजरेटर, एयर-कंडीशनर आदि से होता है।
हालाँकि वायुमंडल में सर्वाधिक मात्रा में पायी जाने वाली गैसें नाइट्रोजन, ऑक्सीज़न और ऑर्गन हैं, लेकिन ये ग्रीनहाउस गैसें नहीं हैं क्योंकि इनके अणु में एक ही तत्व के दो परमाणु शामिल हैं, जैसे-नाइट्रोजन (N 2 ) ऑक्सीज़न (O 2 ) या फिर एक ही तत्व का परमाणु इनके अणु में पाया जाता है ,जैसे- ऑर्गन (Ar) । जब ये वाइब्रेट (Vibrate ) होते हैं तो इनके इलैक्ट्रिक चार्ज के वितरण में कोई परिवर्तन नहीं आता है, अतः ये अवरक्त विकिरण (Infrared Radiation) से लगभग अप्रभावित रहते हैं।
जिन गैसों के अणुओं में अलग अलग तत्वों के दो परमाणु पाये जाते हैं, जैसे- कार्बन मोनो ऑक्साइड (CO) या हाइड्रोजन क्लोराइड (HCl) वे अवरक्त विकिरण को अवशोषित तो करते हैं लेकिन अपनी विलेयता (Solubility) और अभिक्रियाशीलता (Reactivity ) के कारण वातावरण में बहुत कम समय तक ही रहते हैं ।अतः ये भी ग्रीनहाउस प्रभाव में कोई महत्वपूर्ण योगदान नहीं देते हैं, इसीलिए ग्रीनहाउस गैसों की चर्चा करते वक्त इन्हें छोड़ दिया जाता है।
कृत्रिम वर्षा क्या होती है और कैसे करायी जाती है?
वैश्विक तापन के संभावित परिणाम
वैश्विक तापन के संभावित परिणाम निम्नलिखित हो सकते हैं-
1. ग्लेशियरों का पिघलना: ताप बढ़ने से ग्लेशियर पिघलने लगते हैं और उनका आकार कम होने लगता है और ग्लेशियर पीछे हटने लगते हैं। 2. समुद्री जलस्तर में वृद्धि : ग्लेशियरों के पिघलने से प्राप्त जल जब सागरों में मिलता है तो समुद्री जल स्तर में वृद्धि हो जाती है नदियों में बाढ़: ग्लेशियरों से कई बारहमासी नदियां निकलती है और ग्लेशियर के जल को अपने साथ बहाकर ले जाती हैं । यदि ग्लेशियरों के पिघलने की दर बढ़ जाएगी तो नदी में जल की मात्रा बढ़ जाएगी जोकि बाढ़ का कारण बन सकती है। 3. वर्षा-प्रतिरूप में परिवर्तन: वर्षा होने और बादलों के बनने में तापमान की महत्वपूर्ण भूमिका होती है । अतः ताप में वृद्धि के कारण वर्षा-प्रतिरूप या पैटर्न भी बदल जाएगा अर्थात कहीं वर्षा पहले से कम होगी तो कहीं पहले से ज्यादा होने लगेगी । वर्षा की अवधि में भी बदलाव आ जाएगा। 4. प्रवाल भित्ति का विनाश: समुद्री-जल के ताप बढ़ने से प्रवाल भित्ति का विनाश होने लगता है । वर्तमान में लगभग एक तिहाई प्रवाल भित्तियों का अस्तित्व ताप वृद्धि के कारण संकट में पड़ गया है। 5. समुद्री-जल के ताप बढ़ने से प्लैंकटन का विनाश: समुद्री-जल के ताप बढ़ने से प्लैंकटन का विनाश होने लगता है । प्लैंकटन समुद्री जल प्राथमिक जीव हैं । अल्युशियन द्वीप का पारिस्थितिकी तंत्र, जिसमें व्हेल, समुद्री शेर, मछलियाँ, सी अर्चिन आदि अन्य जलीय जीव शामिल हैं, अब प्लैंकटन की कमी के कारण सिकुड़ गया है। 6. प्रवसन में वृद्धि: ताप में वृद्धि होने सागरीय जलस्तर ऊपर उठेगा तो तटीय क्षेत्र व द्वीप जलमग्न हो जाएंगे और तटीय क्षेत्र के निवासी आंतरिक भागों की ओर प्रवास करने के लिए मजबूर हो जाएंगे।
पर्यावरण और पारिस्थितिकीय: समग्र अध्ययन सामग्री
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Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the Sun’s energy varied. But in the past century, another force has started to influence Earth’s climate: humanity.
(NASA astronaut photograph ISS022-E-6674. )
What is Global Warming?
Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released by people burning fossil fuels.
How Does Today’s Warming Compare to Past Climate Change?
Earth has experienced climate change in the past without help from humanity. But the current climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events.
Why Do Scientists Think Current Warming Isn’t Natural?
In Earth’s history before the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s climate changed due to natural causes unrelated to human activity. These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades.
How Much More Will Earth Warm?
Models predict that as the world consumes ever more fossil fuel, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise, and Earth’s average surface temperature will rise with them. Based on plausible emission scenarios, average surface temperatures could rise between 2°C and 6°C by the end of the 21st century. Some of this warming will occur even if future greenhouse gas emissions are reduced, because the Earth system has not yet fully adjusted to environmental changes we have already made.
How Will Earth Respond to Warming Temperatures?
The impact of global warming is far greater than just increasing temperatures. Warming modifies rainfall patterns, amplifies coastal erosion, lengthens the growing season in some regions, melts ice caps and glaciers, and alters the ranges of some infectious diseases. Some of these changes are already occurring.
References and Related Resources
Throughout its long history, Earth has warmed and cooled time and again. Climate has changed when the planet received more or less sunlight due to subtle shifts in its orbit, as the atmosphere or surface changed, or when the Sun’s energy varied. But in the past century, another force has started to influence Earth’s climate: humanity
How does this warming compare to previous changes in Earth’s climate? How can we be certain that human-released greenhouse gases are causing the warming? How much more will the Earth warm? How will Earth respond? Answering these questions is perhaps the most significant scientific challenge of our time.
Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly doubled in the last 50 years. Temperatures are certain to go up further.
Despite ups and downs from year to year, global average surface temperature is rising. By the beginning of the 21st century, Earth’s temperature was roughly 0.5 degrees Celsius above the long-term (1951–1980) average. (NASA figure adapted from Goddard Institute for Space Studies Surface Temperature Analysis. )
Earth’s natural greenhouse effect
Earth’s temperature begins with the Sun. Roughly 30 percent of incoming sunlight is reflected back into space by bright surfaces like clouds and ice. Of the remaining 70 percent, most is absorbed by the land and ocean, and the rest is absorbed by the atmosphere. The absorbed solar energy heats our planet.
As the rocks, the air, and the seas warm, they radiate “heat” energy (thermal infrared radiation). From the surface, this energy travels into the atmosphere where much of it is absorbed by water vapor and long-lived greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide and methane.
When they absorb the energy radiating from Earth’s surface, microscopic water or greenhouse gas molecules turn into tiny heaters— like the bricks in a fireplace, they radiate heat even after the fire goes out. They radiate in all directions. The energy that radiates back toward Earth heats both the lower atmosphere and the surface, enhancing the heating they get from direct sunlight.
This absorption and radiation of heat by the atmosphere—the natural greenhouse effect—is beneficial for life on Earth. If there were no greenhouse effect, the Earth’s average surface temperature would be a very chilly -18°C (0°F) instead of the comfortable 15°C (59°F) that it is today.
See Climate and Earth’s Energy Budget to read more about how sunlight fuels Earth’s climate.
The enhanced greenhouse effect
What has scientists concerned now is that over the past 250 years, humans have been artificially raising the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere at an ever-increasing rate, mostly by burning fossil fuels, but also from cutting down carbon-absorbing forests. Since the Industrial Revolution began in about 1750, carbon dioxide levels have increased nearly 38 percent as of 2009 and methane levels have increased 148 percent.
Increases in concentrations of carbon dioxide (top) and methane (bottom) coincided with the start of the Industrial Revolution in about 1750. Measurements from Antarctic ice cores (green lines) combined with direct atmospheric measurements (blue lines) show the increase of both gases over time. (NASA graphs by Robert Simmon, based on data from the NOAA Paleoclimatology and Earth System Research Laboratory. )
The atmosphere today contains more greenhouse gas molecules, so more of the infrared energy emitted by the surface ends up being absorbed by the atmosphere. Since some of the extra energy from a warmer atmosphere radiates back down to the surface, Earth’s surface temperature rises. By increasing the concentration of greenhouse gases, we are making Earth’s atmosphere a more efficient greenhouse.
How is Today’s Warming Different from the Past?
Earth has experienced climate change in the past without help from humanity. We know about past climates because of evidence left in tree rings, layers of ice in glaciers, ocean sediments, coral reefs, and layers of sedimentary rocks. For example, bubbles of air in glacial ice trap tiny samples of Earth’s atmosphere, giving scientists a history of greenhouse gases that stretches back more than 800,000 years. The chemical make-up of the ice provides clues to the average global temperature.
See the Earth Observatory’s series Paleoclimatology for details about how scientists study past climates.
Glacial ice and air bubbles trapped in it (top) preserve an 800,000-year record of temperature & carbon dioxide. Earth has cycled between ice ages (low points, large negative anomalies) and warm interglacials (peaks). (Photograph courtesy National Snow & Ice Data Center. NASA graph by Robert Simmon, based on data from Jouzel et al., 2007. )
Using this ancient evidence, scientists have built a record of Earth’s past climates, or “paleoclimates.” The paleoclimate record combined with global models shows past ice ages as well as periods even warmer than today. But the paleoclimate record also reveals that the current climatic warming is occurring much more rapidly than past warming events.
As the Earth moved out of ice ages over the past million years, the global temperature rose a total of 4 to 7 degrees Celsius over about 5,000 years. In the past century alone, the temperature has climbed 0.7 degrees Celsius, roughly ten times faster than the average rate of ice-age-recovery warming.
Temperature histories from paleoclimate data (green line) compared to the history based on modern instruments (blue line) suggest that global temperature is warmer now than it has been in the past 1,000 years, and possibly longer. (Graph adapted from Mann et al., 2008. )
Models predict that Earth will warm between 2 and 6 degrees Celsius in the next century. When global warming has happened at various times in the past two million years, it has taken the planet about 5,000 years to warm 5 degrees. The predicted rate of warming for the next century is at least 20 times faster. This rate of change is extremely unusual.
Is Current Warming Natural?
In Earth’s history before the Industrial Revolution, Earth’s climate changed due to natural causes not related to human activity. Most often, global climate has changed because of variations in sunlight. Tiny wobbles in Earth’s orbit altered when and where sunlight falls on Earth’s surface. Variations in the Sun itself have alternately increased and decreased the amount of solar energy reaching Earth. Volcanic eruptions have generated particles that reflect sunlight, brightening the planet and cooling the climate. Volcanic activity has also, in the deep past, increased greenhouse gases over millions of years, contributing to episodes of global warming.
A biographical sketch of Milutin Milankovitch describes how changes in Earth’s orbit affects its climate.
These natural causes are still in play today, but their influence is too small or they occur too slowly to explain the rapid warming seen in recent decades. We know this because scientists closely monitor the natural and human activities that influence climate with a fleet of satellites and surface instruments.
Remote meteorological stations (left) and orbiting satellites (right) help scientists monitor the causes and effects of global warming. [Images courtesy NOAA Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (left) and Environmental Visualization Laboratory (right).]
NASA satellites record a host of vital signs including atmospheric aerosols (particles from both natural sources and human activities, such as factories, fires, deserts, and erupting volcanoes), atmospheric gases (including greenhouse gases), energy radiated from Earth’s surface and the Sun, ocean surface temperature changes, global sea level, the extent of ice sheets, glaciers and sea ice, plant growth, rainfall, cloud structure, and more.
On the ground, many agencies and nations support networks of weather and climate-monitoring stations that maintain temperature, rainfall, and snow depth records, and buoys that measure surface water and deep ocean temperatures. Taken together, these measurements provide an ever-improving record of both natural events and human activity for the past 150 years.
Scientists integrate these measurements into climate models to recreate temperatures recorded over the past 150 years. Climate model simulations that consider only natural solar variability and volcanic aerosols since 1750—omitting observed increases in greenhouse gases—are able to fit the observations of global temperatures only up until about 1950. After that point, the decadal trend in global surface warming cannot be explained without including the contribution of the greenhouse gases added by humans.
Though people have had the largest impact on our climate since 1950, natural changes to Earth’s climate have also occurred in recent times. For example, two major volcanic eruptions, El Chichon in 1982 and Pinatubo in 1991, pumped sulfur dioxide gas high into the atmosphere. The gas was converted into tiny particles that lingered for more than a year, reflecting sunlight and shading Earth’s surface. Temperatures across the globe dipped for two to three years.
Although Earth’s temperature fluctuates naturally, human influence on climate has eclipsed the magnitude of natural temperature changes over the past 120 years. Natural influences on temperature—El Niño, solar variability, and volcanic aerosols—have varied approximately plus and minus 0.2° C (0.4° F), (averaging to about zero), while human influences have contributed roughly 0.8° C (1° F) of warming since 1889. (Graphs adapted from Lean et al., 2008.)
Although volcanoes are active around the world, and continue to emit carbon dioxide as they did in the past, the amount of carbon dioxide they release is extremely small compared to human emissions. On average, volcanoes emit between 130 and 230 million tonnes of carbon dioxide per year. By burning fossil fuels, people release in excess of 100 times more, about 26 billion tonnes of carbon dioxide, into the atmosphere every year (as of 2005). As a result, human activity overshadows any contribution volcanoes may have made to recent global warming.
Changes in the brightness of the Sun can influence the climate from decade to decade, but an increase in solar output falls short as an explanation for recent warming. NASA satellites have been measuring the Sun’s output since 1978. The total energy the Sun radiates varies over an 11-year cycle. During solar maxima, solar energy is approximately 0.1 percent higher on average than it is during solar minima.
The transparent halo known as the solar corona changes between solar maximum (left) and solar minimum (right). (NASA Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope images from the SOHO Data Archive. )
Each cycle exhibits subtle differences in intensity and duration. As of early 2010, the solar brightness since 2005 has been slightly lower, not higher, than it was during the previous 11-year minimum in solar activity, which occurred in the late 1990s. This implies that the Sun’s impact between 2005 and 2010 might have been to slightly decrease the warming that greenhouse emissions alone would have caused.
Satellite measurements of daily (light line) and monthly average (dark line) total solar irradiance since 1979 have not detected a clear long-term trend. (NASA graph by Robert Simmon, based on data from the ACRIM Science Team. )
Scientists theorize that there may be a multi-decadal trend in solar output, though if one exists, it has not been observed as yet. Even if the Sun were getting brighter, however, the pattern of warming observed on Earth since 1950 does not match the type of warming the Sun alone would cause. When the Sun’s energy is at its peak (solar maxima), temperatures in both the lower atmosphere (troposphere) and the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) become warmer. Instead, observations show the pattern expected from greenhouse gas effects: Earth’s surface and troposphere have warmed, but the stratosphere has cooled.
Satellite measurements show warming in the troposphere (lower atmosphere, green line) but cooling in the stratosphere (upper atmosphere, red line). This vertical pattern is consistent with global warming due to increasing greenhouse gases, but inconsistent with warming from natural causes. (Graph by Robert Simmon, based on data from Remote Sensing Systems, sponsored by the NOAA Climate and Global Change Program.)
The stratosphere gets warmer during solar maxima because the ozone layer absorbs ultraviolet light; more ultraviolet light during solar maxima means warmer temperatures. Ozone depletion explains the biggest part of the cooling of the stratosphere over recent decades, but it can’t account for all of it. Increased concentrations of carbon dioxide in the troposphere and stratosphere together contribute to cooling in the stratosphere.
To further explore the causes and effects of global warming and to predict future warming, scientists build climate models—computer simulations of the climate system. Climate models are designed to simulate the responses and interactions of the oceans and atmosphere, and to account for changes to the land surface, both natural and human-induced. They comply with fundamental laws of physics—conservation of energy, mass, and momentum—and account for dozens of factors that influence Earth’s climate.
Though the models are complicated, rigorous tests with real-world data hone them into powerful tools that allow scientists to explore our understanding of climate in ways not otherwise possible. By experimenting with the models—removing greenhouse gases emitted by the burning of fossil fuels or changing the intensity of the Sun to see how each influences the climate—scientists use the models to better understand Earth’s current climate and to predict future climate.
The models predict that as the world consumes ever more fossil fuel, greenhouse gas concentrations will continue to rise, and Earth’s average surface temperature will rise with them. Based on a range of plausible emission scenarios, average surface temperatures could rise between 2°C and 6°C by the end of the 21st century.
Model simulations by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimate that Earth will warm between two and six degrees Celsius over the next century, depending on how fast carbon dioxide emissions grow. Scenarios that assume that people will burn more and more fossil fuel provide the estimates in the top end of the temperature range, while scenarios that assume that greenhouse gas emissions will grow slowly give lower temperature predictions. The orange line provides an estimate of global temperatures if greenhouse gases stayed at year 2000 levels. (©2007 IPCC WG1 AR-4.)
Greenhouse gases are only part of the story when it comes to global warming. Changes to one part of the climate system can cause additional changes to the way the planet absorbs or reflects energy. These secondary changes are called climate feedbacks, and they could more than double the amount of warming caused by carbon dioxide alone. The primary feedbacks are due to snow and ice, water vapor, clouds, and the carbon cycle.
Snow and ice
Perhaps the most well known feedback comes from melting snow and ice in the Northern Hemisphere. Warming temperatures are already melting a growing percentage of Arctic sea ice, exposing dark ocean water during the perpetual sunlight of summer. Snow cover on land is also dwindling in many areas. In the absence of snow and ice, these areas go from having bright, sunlight-reflecting surfaces that cool the planet to having dark, sunlight-absorbing surfaces that bring more energy into the Earth system and cause more warming.
Canada’s Athabasca Glacier has been shrinking by about 15 meters per year. In the past 125 years, the glacier has lost half its volume and has retreated more than 1.5 kilometers. As glaciers retreat, sea ice disappears, and snow melts earlier in the spring, the Earth absorbs more sunlight than it would if the reflective snow and ice remained. (Photograph ©2005 Hugh Saxby. )
The largest feedback is water vapor. Water vapor is a strong greenhouse gas. In fact, because of its abundance in the atmosphere, water vapor causes about two-thirds of greenhouse warming, a key factor in keeping temperatures in the habitable range on Earth. But as temperatures warm, more water vapor evaporates from the surface into the atmosphere, where it can cause temperatures to climb further.
The question that scientists ask is, how much water vapor will be in the atmosphere in a warming world? The atmosphere currently has an average equilibrium or balance between water vapor concentration and temperature. As temperatures warm, the atmosphere becomes capable of containing more water vapor, and so water vapor concentrations go up to regain equilibrium. Will that trend hold as temperatures continue to warm?
The amount of water vapor that enters the atmosphere ultimately determines how much additional warming will occur due to the water vapor feedback. The atmosphere responds quickly to the water vapor feedback. So far, most of the atmosphere has maintained a near constant balance between temperature and water vapor concentration as temperatures have gone up in recent decades. If this trend continues, and many models say that it will, water vapor has the capacity to double the warming caused by carbon dioxide alone.
Closely related to the water vapor feedback is the cloud feedback. Clouds cause cooling by reflecting solar energy, but they also cause warming by absorbing infrared energy (like greenhouse gases) from the surface when they are over areas that are warmer than they are. In our current climate, clouds have a cooling effect overall, but that could change in a warmer environment.
Clouds can both cool the planet (by reflecting visible light from the sun) and warm the planet (by absorbing heat radiation emitted by the surface). On balance, clouds slightly cool the Earth. (NASA Astronaut Photograph STS31-E-9552 courtesy Johnson space Center Earth Observations Lab. )
If clouds become brighter, or the geographical extent of bright clouds expands, they will tend to cool Earth’s surface. Clouds can become brighter if more moisture converges in a particular region or if more fine particles (aerosols) enter the air. If fewer bright clouds form, it will contribute to warming from the cloud feedback.
See Ship Tracks South of Alaska to learn how aerosols can make clouds brighter.
Clouds, like greenhouse gases, also absorb and re-emit infrared energy. Low, warm clouds emit more energy than high, cold clouds. However, in many parts of the world, energy emitted by low clouds can be absorbed by the abundant water vapor above them. Further, low clouds often have nearly the same temperatures as the Earth’s surface, and so emit similar amounts of infrared energy. In a world without low clouds, the amount of emitted infrared energy escaping to space would not be too different from a world with low clouds.
Clouds emit thermal infrared (heat) radiation in proportion to their temperature, which is related to altitude. This image shows the Western Hemisphere in the thermal infrared. Warm ocean and land surface areas are white and light gray; cool, low-level clouds are medium gray; and cold, high-altitude clouds are dark gray and black. (NASA image courtesy GOES Project Science. )
High cold clouds, however, form in a part of the atmosphere where energy-absorbing water vapor is scarce. These clouds trap (absorb) energy coming from the lower atmosphere, and emit little energy to space because of their frigid temperatures. In a world with high clouds, a significant amount of energy that would otherwise escape to space is captured in the atmosphere. As a result, global temperatures are higher than in a world without high clouds.
If warmer temperatures result in a greater amount of high clouds, then less infrared energy will be emitted to space. In other words, more high clouds would enhance the greenhouse effect, reducing the Earth’s capability to cool and causing temperatures to warm.
See Clouds and Radiation for a more complete description.
Scientists aren’t entirely sure where and to what degree clouds will end up amplifying or moderating warming, but most climate models predict a slight overall positive feedback or amplification of warming due to a reduction in low cloud cover. A recent observational study found that fewer low, dense clouds formed over a region in the Pacific Ocean when temperatures warmed, suggesting a positive cloud feedback in this region as the models predicted. Such direct observational evidence is limited, however, and clouds remain the biggest source of uncertainty--apart from human choices to control greenhouse gases—in predicting how much the climate will change.
The Carbon Cycle
Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and warming temperatures are causing changes in the Earth’s natural carbon cycle that also can feedback on atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. For now, primarily ocean water, and to some extent ecosystems on land, are taking up about half of our fossil fuel and biomass burning emissions. This behavior slows global warming by decreasing the rate of atmospheric carbon dioxide increase, but that trend may not continue. Warmer ocean waters will hold less dissolved carbon, leaving more in the atmosphere.
About half the carbon dioxide emitted into the air from burning fossil fuels dissolves in the ocean. This map shows the total amount of human-made carbon dioxide in ocean water from the surface to the sea floor. Blue areas have low amounts, while yellow regions are rich in anthropogenic carbon dioxide. High amounts occur where currents carry the carbon-dioxide-rich surface water into the ocean depths. (Map adapted from Sabine et al., 2004.)
See The Ocean’s Carbon Balance on the Earth Observatory.
On land, changes in the carbon cycle are more complicated. Under a warmer climate, soils, especially thawing Arctic tundra, could release trapped carbon dioxide or methane to the atmosphere. Increased fire frequency and insect infestations also release more carbon as trees burn or die and decay.
On the other hand, extra carbon dioxide can stimulate plant growth in some ecosystems, allowing these plants to take additional carbon out of the atmosphere. However, this effect may be reduced when plant growth is limited by water, nitrogen, and temperature. This effect may also diminish as carbon dioxide increases to levels that become saturating for photosynthesis. Because of these complications, it is not clear how much additional carbon dioxide plants can take out of the atmosphere and how long they could continue to do so.
The impact of climate change on the land carbon cycle is extremely complex, but on balance, land carbon sinks will become less efficient as plants reach saturation, where they can no longer take up additional carbon dioxide, and other limitations on growth occur, and as land starts to add more carbon to the atmosphere from warming soil, fires, and insect infestations. This will result in a faster increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide and more rapid global warming. In some climate models, carbon cycle feedbacks from both land and ocean add more than a degree Celsius to global temperatures by 2100.
Scientists predict the range of likely temperature increase by running many possible future scenarios through climate models. Although some of the uncertainty in climate forecasts comes from imperfect knowledge of climate feedbacks, the most significant source of uncertainty in these predictions is that scientists don’t know what choices people will make to control greenhouse gas emissions.
The higher estimates are made on the assumption that the entire world will continue using more and more fossil fuel per capita, a scenario scientists call “business-as-usual.” More modest estimates come from scenarios in which environmentally friendly technologies such as fuel cells, solar panels, and wind energy replace much of today’s fossil fuel combustion.
It takes decades to centuries for Earth to fully react to increases in greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide, among other greenhouse gases, will remain in the atmosphere long after emissions are reduced, contributing to continuing warming. In addition, as Earth has warmed, much of the excess energy has gone into heating the upper layers of the ocean. Like a hot water bottle on a cold night, the heated ocean will continue warming the lower atmosphere well after greenhouse gases have stopped increasing.
These considerations mean that people won’t immediately see the impact of reduced greenhouse gas emissions. Even if greenhouse gas concentrations stabilized today, the planet would continue to warm by about 0.6°C over the next century because of greenhouses gases already in the atmosphere.
See Earth’s Big Heat Bucket, Correcting Ocean Cooling, and Climate Q&A: If we immediately stopped emitting greenhouse gases, would global warming stop? to learn more about the ocean heat and global warming.
How Will Global Warming Change Earth?
The impact of increased surface temperatures is significant in itself. But global warming will have additional, far-reaching effects on the planet. Warming modifies rainfall patterns, amplifies coastal erosion, lengthens the growing season in some regions, melts ice caps and glaciers, and alters the ranges of some infectious diseases. Some of these changes are already occurring.
Global warming will shift major climate patterns, possibly prolonging and intensifying the current drought in the U.S. Southwest. The white ring of bleached rock on the once-red cliffs that hold Lake Powell indicate the drop in water level over the past decade—the result of repeated winters with low snowfall. (Photograph ©2006 Tigresblanco. )
For most places, global warming will result in more frequent hot days and fewer cool days, with the greatest warming occurring over land. Longer, more intense heat waves will become more common. Storms, floods, and droughts will generally be more severe as precipitation patterns change. Hurricanes may increase in intensity due to warmer ocean surface temperatures.
Apart from driving temperatures up, global warming is likely to cause bigger, more destructive storms, leading to an overall increase in precipitation. With some exceptions, the tropics will likely receive less rain (orange) as the planet warms, while the polar regions will receive more precipitation (green). White areas indicate that fewer than two-thirds of the climate models agreed on how precipitation will change. Stippled areas reveal where more than 90 percent of the models agreed. (©2007 IPCC WG1 AR-4.)
It is impossible to pin any single unusual weather event on global warming, but emerging evidence suggests that global warming is already influencing the weather. Heat waves, droughts, and intense rain events have increased in frequency during the last 50 years, and human-induced global warming more likely than not contributed to the trend.
Rising Sea Levels
The weather isn’t the only thing global warming will impact: rising sea levels will erode coasts and cause more frequent coastal flooding. Some island nations will disappear. The problem is serious because up to 10 percent of the world’s population lives in vulnerable areas less than 10 meters (about 30 feet) above sea level.
Between 1870 and 2000, the sea level increased by 1.7 millimeters per year on average, for a total sea level rise of 221 millimeters (0.7 feet or 8.7 inches). And the rate of sea level rise is accelerating. Since 1993, NASA satellites have shown that sea levels are rising more quickly, about 3 millimeters per year, for a total sea level rise of 48 millimeters (0.16 feet or 1.89 inches) between 1993 and 2009.
Sea levels crept up about 20 centimeters (7.9 inches) during the twentieth century. Sea levels are predicted to go up between 18 and 59 cm (7.1 and 23 inches) over the next century, though the increase could be greater if ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica melt more quickly than predicted. Higher sea levels will erode coastlines and cause more frequent flooding. (Graph ©2007 Robert Rohde. )
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) estimates that sea levels will rise between 0.18 and 0.59 meters (0.59 to 1.9 feet) by 2099 as warming sea water expands, and mountain and polar glaciers melt. These sea level change predictions may be underestimates, however, because they do not account for any increases in the rate at which the world’s major ice sheets are melting. As temperatures rise, ice will melt more quickly. Satellite measurements reveal that the Greenland and West Antarctic ice sheets are shedding about 125 billion tons of ice per year—enough to raise sea levels by 0.35 millimeters (0.01 inches) per year. If the melting accelerates, the increase in sea level could be significantly higher.
More importantly, perhaps, global warming is already putting pressure on ecosystems, the plants and animals that co-exist in a particular climate zone, both on land and in the ocean. Warmer temperatures have already shifted the growing season in many parts of the globe. The growing season in parts of the Northern Hemisphere became two weeks longer in the second half of the 20th century. Spring is coming earlier in both hemispheres.
This change in the growing season affects the broader ecosystem. Migrating animals have to start seeking food sources earlier. The shift in seasons may already be causing the lifecycles of pollinators, like bees, to be out of synch with flowering plants and trees. This mismatch can limit the ability of both pollinators and plants to survive and reproduce, which would reduce food availability throughout the food chain.
See Buzzing About Climate Change to read more about how the lifecycle of bees is synched with flowering plants.
Warmer temperatures also extend the growing season. This means that plants need more water to keep growing throughout the season or they will dry out, increasing the risk of failed crops and wildfires. Once the growing season ends, shorter, milder winters fail to kill dormant insects, increasing the risk of large, damaging infestations in subsequent seasons.
In some ecosystems, maximum daily temperatures might climb beyond the tolerance of indigenous plant or animal. To survive the extreme temperatures, both marine and land-based plants and animals have started to migrate towards the poles. Those species, and in some cases, entire ecosystems, that cannot quickly migrate or adapt, face extinction. The IPCC estimates that 20-30 percent of plant and animal species will be at risk of extinction if temperatures climb more than 1.5° to 2.5°C.
The changes to weather and ecosystems will also affect people more directly. Hardest hit will be those living in low-lying coastal areas, and residents of poorer countries who do not have the resources to adapt to changes in temperature extremes and water resources. As tropical temperature zones expand, the reach of some infectious diseases, such as malaria, will change. More intense rains and hurricanes and rising sea levels will lead to more severe flooding and potential loss of property and life.
One inevitable consequence of global warming is sea-level rise. In the face of higher sea levels and more intense storms, coastal communities face greater risk of rapid beach erosion from destructive storms like the intense nor’easter of April 2007 that caused this damage. (Photograph ©2007 metimbers2000. )
Hotter summers and more frequent fires will lead to more cases of heat stroke and deaths, and to higher levels of near-surface ozone and smoke, which would cause more ‘code red’ air quality days. Intense droughts can lead to an increase in malnutrition. On a longer time scale, fresh water will become scarcer, especially during the summer, as mountain glaciers disappear, particularly in Asia and parts of North America.
On the flip side, there could be “winners” in a few places. For example, as long as the rise in global average temperature stays below 3 degrees Celsius, some models predict that global food production could increase because of the longer growing season at mid- to high-latitudes, provided adequate water resources are available. The same small change in temperature, however, would reduce food production at lower latitudes, where many countries already face food shortages. On balance, most research suggests that the negative impacts of a changing climate far outweigh the positive impacts. Current civilization—agriculture and population distribution—has developed based on the current climate. The more the climate changes, and the more rapidly it changes, the greater the cost of adaptation.
Ultimately, global warming will impact life on Earth in many ways, but the extent of the change is largely up to us. Scientists have shown that human emissions of greenhouse gases are pushing global temperatures up, and many aspects of climate are responding to the warming in the way that scientists predicted they would. This offers hope. Since people are causing global warming, people can mitigate global warming, if they act in time. Greenhouse gases are long-lived, so the planet will continue to warm and changes will continue to happen far into the future, but the degree to which global warming changes life on Earth depends on our decisions now.
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How You Can Stop Global Warming
EDITOR’S NOTE: On April 4, 2022, the IPCC released the Working Group III Sixth Assessment report on climate change mitigation. The report describes how, despite gains in the clean energy revolution, nations are falling far too short of reducing climate pollution quickly enough to avoid severe damage, cost, and upheaval. “The good news is that we have the climate solutions needed, and they work,” says NRDC president Manish Bapna. “For our economic and national security, and for the future of all life on earth, lawmakers must act without delay.” Read more about the IPCC report here .
Rising sea levels. Raging storms. Searing heat. Ferocious fires. Severe drought. Punishing floods. The effects of climate change are already threatening our health, our communities, our economy, our security, and our children’s future.
What can you do? A whole lot, as it turns out. Americans, on average, produce 21 tons of carbon a year, about four times the global average. Personal action is, of course, no substitute for meaningful government policies. We still must limit carbon pollution and aggressively move away from dirty fossil fuels toward cleaner power.
But it’s important to remember the equally vital contributions that can be made by private citizens—which is to say, by you. “Change only happens when individuals take action,” says clean energy advocate Aliya Haq . “There’s no other way, if it doesn’t start with people.”
Here are a dozen easy, effective ways each one of us can make a difference.
1. Speak up!
What’s the single biggest way you can make an impact on global climate change? “Talk to your friends and family, and make sure your representatives are making good decisions,” Haq says. By voicing your concerns—via social media or, better yet, directly to your elected officials —you send a message that you care about the warming world. Encourage Congress to enact new laws that limit carbon emissions and require polluters to pay for the emissions they produce. “The main reason elected officials do anything difficult is because their constituents make them,” Haq says. You can help protect public lands, stop offshore drilling, and more here .
2. Power your home with renewable energy.
Choose a utility company that generates at least half its power from wind or solar and has been certified by Green-e Energy , an organization that vets renewable energy options. If that isn’t possible for you, take a look at your electric bill; many utilities now list other ways to support renewable sources on their monthly statements and websites.
3. Weatherize, weatherize, weatherize.
“Building heating and cooling are among the biggest uses of energy,” Haq says. Indeed, heating and air-conditioning account for almost half of home energy use. You can make your space more energy efficient by sealing drafts and ensuring it’s adequately insulated. You can also claim federal tax credits for many energy efficiency home improvements. To help you figure out where to start, you could also get a home energy audit, which some utilities offer free of charge (alternatively, you can hire a professional to come to your home and perform one). The EPA’s Home Energy Yardstick gives you a simple assessment of your home’s annual energy use compared with similar homes.
4. Invest in energy-efficient appliances.
Since they were first implemented nationally in 1987, efficiency standards for dozens of appliances and products have kept 2.3 billion tons of carbon dioxide out of the air. That’s about the same amount as the annual carbon pollution coughed up by nearly 440 million cars. “Energy efficiency is the lowest-cost way to reduce emissions,” Haq says. When shopping for refrigerators, washing machines, heat pump water heaters , and other appliances, look for the Energy Star label. It will tell you which are the most efficient. (There may also be rebates to earn from your purchase of Energy Star–certified products.)
And when you’re ready to swap out your old machines, don’t just put them on the curb: Recycling an old refrigerator through the EPA’s Responsible Appliance Disposal Program can prevent an additional 10,000 pounds of carbon pollution because the global-warming pollutants in the refrigerants and foam would be properly captured rather than vented to the air.
5. Reduce water waste.
Saving water reduces carbon pollution, too. That's because it takes a lot of energy to pump, heat, and treat your water. So take shorter showers, turn off the tap while brushing your teeth, and switch to WaterSense -labeled fixtures and appliances. The EPA estimates that if just one out of every 100 American homes were retrofitted with water-efficient fixtures, about 100 million kilowatt-hours of electricity per year would be saved—avoiding 80,000 tons of global warming pollution .
6. Actually eat the food you buy—and compost what you can’t.
Approximately 10 percent of U.S. energy use goes into growing, processing, packaging, and shipping food—about 40 percent of which winds up in the landfill. “If you’re wasting less food, you’re likely cutting down on energy consumption,” Haq says. As for the scraps you can’t eat or the leftovers you don’t get to, collect them in a compost bin instead of sending them to the landfill where they release methane. Recycling food and other organic waste into compost provides a range of environmental benefits, including improving soil health, reducing greenhouse gas emissions, recycling nutrients, and mitigating the impact of droughts.
7. Buy better bulbs.
LED light bulbs use one-sixth the amount of energy to deliver the same amount of light as conventional incandescents and last at least 10 times longer. They’re also cheaper in the long run: A 10-watt LED that replaces your traditional 60-watt bulb will save you $125 over the ligh bulb’s life. And because the average American home has around 40 to 50 light bulbs, this is a simple swap that will reap huge rewards. If every household in the United States replaced just one incandescent with an Energy Star–labeled LED, we would prevent seven billion pounds of carbon pollution per year. That’s equivalent to the emissions of about 648,000 cars.
8. Pull the plug(s).
Taken together, the outlets in your home are likely powering about 65 devices—an average load for a home in the United States. Audio and video devices, cordless vacuums and power tools, and other electronics use energy even when they're not charging. This "idle load" across all U.S. households adds up to the output of 50 large power plants in the country. So don't leave fully charged devices plugged into your home's outlets, unplug rarely used devices or plug them into power strips and timers, and adjust your computers and monitors to automatically power down to the lowest power mode when not in use.
9. Drive a fuel-efficient vehicle.
Gas-smart cars, such as hybrids and fully electric vehicles, save fuel and money . And once all cars and light trucks meet 2025’s clean car standards, which means averaging 54.5 miles per gallon, they’ll be a mainstay. For good reason: Relative to a national fleet of vehicles that averaged only 28.3 miles per gallon in 2011, Americans will spend $80 billion less at the pump each year and cut their automotive emissions by half. Before you buy a new set of wheels, compare fuel-economy performance here .
10. Maintain your ride.
If all Americans kept their tires properly inflated, we could save 1.2 billion gallons of gas each year. A simple tune-up can boost miles per gallon anywhere from 4 percent to 40 percent, and a new air filter can get you a 10 percent boost. Also, remove unnecessary accessories from your car roof. Roof racks and clamshell storage containers can reduce fuel efficiency by as much as 5 percent.
11. Rethink planes, trains, and automobiles.
Choosing to live in walkable smart-growth cities and towns with quality public transportation leads to less driving, less money spent on fuel, and less pollution in the air . Less frequent flying can make a big difference, too. “Air transport is a major source of climate pollution,” Haq says. “If you can take a train instead, do that.” If you must fly, consider purchasing carbon offsets to counterbalance the hefty carbon pollution associated with flying. But not all carbon offset companies are alike. Do your homework to find the best supplier.
12. Reduce, reuse, and recycle.
In the United States, the average person generates 4.5 pounds of trash every day. Fortunately, not all the items we discard end up in landfills; we recycle or compost more than one-third of our trash. In 2014 this saved carbon emissions equivalent to the yearly output of 38 million passenger cars . But we could be doing so much more. “ Reduce should always be the number-one priority,” says NRDC senior resource specialist Darby Hoover . And to reap the environmental benefits of “recyclable” goods, you must recycle according to the rules of your municipality, since systems vary widely by location . Search your municipality’s sanitation department (or equivalent) webpage to learn exactly what you can place in the recycling bin, as counties and cities often differ in what they accept.
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What have we done to the world.
The phenomenon of rising average air temperatures close to the surface of the Earth over the previous one to two centuries is known as global warming. Since the middle of the 20th century, climate scientists have accumulated extensive data on a variety of weather events, including temperatures, precipitation, and storms, as well as on factors that have an impact on climates, such as ocean currents and the chemical makeup of the atmosphere. These findings show that Earth's climate has changed on practically every possible period since the beginning of geologic time and that human activities have increasingly affected the pace and scope of current climate change since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
Causes of Global Warming
Green house effect.
The Earth's average surface temperature is maintained through maintaining a balance between various forms of solar and terrestrial radiation. Solar radiation is frequently referred to as a ``shortwave" radiation because of its extraordinarily high frequencies and short wavelengths, which are close to the visible portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. Terrestrial radiation, on the other hand, is frequently referred to as "longwave" radiation due to the comparatively low frequencies and lengthy wavelengths—somewhere in the infrared region of the spectrum. Downward-moving solar energy is often measured in terms of Watts per square metre. At the top of the Earth's atmosphere, the "solar constant," or total solar radiation energy, is around 1,366 watts per square metre each year. The average annual surface insolation is 342 watts per square metre accounting for the fact that only 50% of the planet's surface is exposed to solar radiation.
The greenhouse effect adds to the complexity of Earth's energy balance. The so-called greenhouse gases, primarily carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O), are trace gases with certain chemical properties that absorb some of the infrared light emitted by the Earth's surface. A portion of the original 70 units do not directly escape to space because of this absorption. The net result of absorption by greenhouse gases is to increase the total amount of radiation emitted downward toward Earth's surface and lower atmosphere because greenhouse gases emit the due to the radiation's uniform distribution and the fact that they absorb the same amount of it in all directions (that is, as much downward as upward).
The temperature of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere can be changed in three different ways, according to the greenhouse effect discussion above: (1) by a net increase in the solar radiation entering at the top of Earth's atmosphere, (2) by a change in the fraction of radiation reaching the surface, and (3) by a change in the concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Changes in any situation can be explained by "radiative forcing."
Influence Of Human Activity On Climate
By altering the ozone and aerosol concentrations as well as the surface of the Earth's land cover, humans also have an impact on the climate. Such as
Greenhouse Gases: emitting gases increase the amount of net downward longwave radiation that reaches the surface to warm the Earth's surface .
Water Vapor: it does not have a direct impact on global warming but causes climate change. As surface temperature rises, the rate of water evaporation from a surface increases. A higher quantity of water vapour, which can absorb longwave radiation and emit it downward, can be found in the lower atmosphere because of enhanced evaporation.
Carbon Dioxide: it has been produced by various sources from plants to animals Since the start of the industrial age, anthropogenic CO 2 emissions have caused an average radiative forcing of 1.66 watts per square metre.
Methane: The second-most significant greenhouse gas is methane (CH 4 ). Along with the Pleistocene ice age cycles, methane concentrations have also changed across a smaller range (between roughly 350 and 800 ppb) (see Natural influences on climate). Anthropogenic CH 4 emissions have a net radiative forcing of around 0.5 watt per square metre, or about one-third that of CO 2 .
Surface Level Ozone and Other Compounds : Surface, or low-level, ozone is the second-largest greenhouse gas (O 3 ). Air pollution is the cause of surface O 3 . The best estimates place the natural surface O3 content at 10 ppb, while the net radiative forcing brought on by anthropogenic surface O 3 emissions is roughly 0.35 watts per square metre. In cities that are prone to photochemical smog, ozone concentrations can approach harmful levels (conditions when concentrations meet or exceed 70 ppb for eight hours or longer).
Causes of Climate Change:
Under this head, the causes can be divided into two factors;
Global Warming: Is it a human-made cause?
Higher Levels of Deforestation:
Deforestation affects the release of aerosols and other chemical compounds that affect clouds and changes in wind patterns, causing a flux in precipitation levels. In basic terms, Trees and plants are responsible for being the primary source of oxygen. By taking the carbon dioxide in, they release oxygen in the air, thereby maintaining a state of ecological balance, causing lesser air pollution. Planned human activities like continued forest loss for industrial and commercial motives drive the increase in carbon dioxide concentrations. As we know, Carbon dioxide is one of the leading heat-trapping gases, mainly responsible for average warming and environmental imbalance over the past few decades.
Transportation and Use of Vehicles:
In this fast-paced world, people often use vehicles even for covering short distances. Gaseous emissions from cars and vehicles often drive temperature rise by trapping energy, which translates into heat. Such activities come under 'anthropogenic forcing,' i.e., human-influenced forces on the climate system. Continued transportation around congested areas contributes to air pollution, which eventually leads to increased global warming. According to IPCC reports, the transportation sector's contribution has grown by more than 50% since 1992 and continues to be one of the leading causes of global warming.
Emissions of Chlorofluorocarbons:
In today's state of successive climate imbalance and issues of global warming, we all know that human-made causes have very high tendencies towards rising global surface temperatures. Other factors that add up to the causes are widespread commercialization and increased use of technological appliances such as Air conditioners and refrigerators. The atmospheric ozone layer is responsible for protecting the Earth's temperature from the sun's harmful UV radiation. Such practices have added an extra layer of CFCs or Chlorofluorocarbons in the air, depleting the intensity of the ozone layer.
Emissions From Industries and Power Plants:
According to a report stated in 2018, some of the significant global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions are almost equal to 52 billion tonnes of Carbon dioxide. Out of which 72% is released from industries and power plants. With the advent of industrialization, the rising usage of electricity and heat, global warming has increased to a great extent. The release of pollutants from these sources has a significant impact on the environment and disturbs the delicate balance of nature.
Agriculture and Land Surface Changes:
Frequent practices of agriculture take up almost 50% of the world's habitable land. Short term agricultural cultivation affects nearly 24% of the permanent land-use change. These activities also add up to the rise in temperature and GHG emissions from the land surface. The changes in land surface disturb the natural process of carbon storage and affect the reflection and absorption of sunlight heat. Soil erosion , Deforestation, and chemical fertilizers application lead to increased runoff that carries pollutants into water resources and eventually to the oceans.
Combustion of Fossil Fuels, Overpopulation:
Most of the heat-trapping emissions from burning coal, gas, and oil from industries and cars, along with widespread Deforestation and rising levels of black carbon pollution or 'soot' in the form of aerosols affecting Earth's albedo come under this type. Also, the primary gas causing Global warming is Carbon dioxide, which is influenced by rising overpopulation.
Natural Causes of Global Warming
Volcanic Eruptions: They constitute one of the significant natural causes affecting global warming because of the increased release of gases and smoke from the eruptions.
Natural Forest Fires: When significant scale vegetation burns, leading to forest blaze, there is a release of stored carbon and a rise in greenhouse gas emissions. These emissions further trap solar energy leading to Global warming.
Melting Permafrost and Glaciers: Towards the north and south poles of the planet, considerably large amounts of carbon are frozen in the form of permafrost. Disturbances such as solar activities, forest fires, volcanic eruptions can lead to the sudden release of GHGs and carbon sequestration into the atmosphere, giving way to ecological imbalances.
Solar Activities: Changes in solar irradiance in wavelengths and other variations such as solar flares or sunspots, if larger enough, could have an unprecedented impact over global warming and atmospheric temperatures.
Global Warming: Its Effects and Impacts
The major impacts of global warming include societal, economic, and health impacts. It can cause a lot of harm if it continues the same way as it is happening now. Here are its certain impacts:
Rise in Temperature Leading to Ice Melt: Melting glaciers and snow melts will cause severe water shortages and droughts with higher frequencies giving way to heatwaves and extreme weather conditions in the mid-latitudes. Thinning ice of the northern seas will make the atmospheric conditions vulnerable to control.
Ecological Risks: Global warming has contributed to the extension of drier climatic zones such as deserts in the subtropics. Mostly ecosystems and animal life will be affected by higher carbon dioxide levels and global temperatures leading to climate change, which will result in the extinction of many species and reduced ecological diversity.
The Threat to Marine Life: Global warming can lead to the destruction of marine and coral life underwater. Higher content of carbon dioxide in the water inflicts damage to valuable natural resources.
Loss of Settlements: Global warming can also lead to Inundation from sea level rise, which can further threaten infrastructure and establishments of human settlements. This severely leads to a decrease in the human population. Droughts, temperature rise, loss of glacial rivers puts the state of agriculture on ain the rampage.
Health Factors: There are various indirect effects such as malnutrition inflicted by crop failures. Scanty rainfall leading to desertification can also cause several diseases due to global warming.
Flooding in low-altitude regions: Rise in sea level and high flooding tendencies can damage human habitation and cause mass destruction.
Potential Effects of Global Warming
Various assumptions about projected rates of population growth , economic expansion, energy demand, technology improvement, climate mitigation, and other aspects are used to create the scenarios. Simulations of future climate change include patterns of warning It is anticipated that the area of the North Atlantic Ocean south of Greenland will only be slightly warm. It is predicted that this anomaly would develop as warm northward ocean currents diminish and the jet stream shifts, bringing cooler polar air masses to the area, precipitation pattern is anticipated that changes in precipitation patterns would increase the likelihood of both drought and flood conditions in many regions, regional predictions include Increased winter precipitation in the arid southwest of the United States could make the drought worse in places like South Africa, ice melt and sea level rise, ocean circulation changes and tropical cyclones.
Environmental Consequences of Global Warming
Biological systems may change because of climate change and global warming. More precisely, variations in near-surface air temperatures are anticipated to have an impact on ecosystem processes and, consequently, the diversity of plants, animals, and other life forms. Plant and animal species have developed their current geographic ranges because of adaptation to long-term seasonal climate patterns. If global average surface temperatures climb by another 1.5 to 2.5 °C (2.7 to 4.5 °F) by the year 2100, a significant portion of plant and animal species are anticipated to be in increased danger of extinction. For warming above 4.5 °C (8.1 °F), a level that could be attained in the IPCC's higher emissions scenarios, species loss estimates increase to as much as 40%. The food webs within ecosystems would certainly undergo significant alterations because of a 40% extinction rate, which would be detrimental to ecosystem function.
Surface warming in temperate regions is likely to affect a variety of seasonal processes, including changes to the timing of egg laying and hatching, earlier leaf production by trees, earlier vegetation greening, and changes to the seasonal migration patterns of birds, fish, and other migratory animals. Polar bears and walruses, two species that depend on broken sea ice for their hunting activities, are threatened by changes in the seasonal patterns of sea ice in high-latitude habitats. The populations of algae and plankton are likely to decrease or be redistributed in the high latitudes due to a combination of warming temperatures, a drop in sea ice, changes in ocean salinity, and changes in ocean circulation. According to the study, if surface warming rose to preindustrial levels of roughly 4.3 °C (7.7 °F), 16% of Earth's species would disappear.
Socioeconomics Consequences of Global Warming
Depending on how much the global temperature rises during the coming century increases, the socioeconomic effects of global warming may be significant. According to models, regions (especially the tropics and high latitudes) would suffer economic losses and other regions would profit economically from net global warming of 1 to 3 °C (1.8 to 5.4 °F) above the late 20th-century global average.
The world has had the maximum rise of CO 2 in 800,000 years.
The year 2017 was the second hottest year followed by 2014.
The US national park is only left with 26 glaciers out of 150.
Earth's climate has changed since the beginning of geologic time and that human activities have increasingly affected the pace and scope of current climate change
The temperature of the Earth's surface and lower atmosphere can be explained by radioactive force.
Greenhouse gas, water vapour, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane influence environmental change.
FAQs on Global Warming
1. What is the difference between Global warming and Climate Change?
The terms Global Warming and Climate Change are often used interchangeably, but there is a slight difference between the two. Global warming refers to the gradual increase of the average global temperature, while Climate Change refers to any significant change in the Earth's climate. So, Global warming can result in Climate Change, but not all cases of Climate Change are due to Global warming. Knowing about both of these is important in understanding the potential effects of climate change. One should know that Global Warming does not occur because of Climate Change. It occurs because of emissions.
2. How will global warming impact the environment?
There are many ways in which global warming will impact the environment. Global warming will cause an increase in temperatures, which will lead to the melting of glaciers and ice caps. This will result in a rise in sea levels, which will flood low-lying areas and coastal towns. There will also be an increase in extreme weather events, such as hurricanes and typhoons and droughts and wildfires. Some of the most notable effects include:
Melting glaciers and ice caps
The extension of desert zones
Changes in rainfall patterns
The increased intensity of storms and hurricanes
The loss of plant and animal species
Each of these impacts will have serious consequences for both the environment and human society.
3. What are the effects of global warming on health?
The effects of global warming on health are far-reaching, as they will influence a range of factors from malnutrition to flooding. The negative consequences of global warming on human society include:
Higher rates of heat stress and heat stroke due to warmer temperatures
Loss of food security for some countries due to temperature rise and desertification, which can lead to malnutrition
Higher rates of respiratory problems due to the extension of deserts and wildfires
Increased disease transmission due to insects moving towards higher altitudes
The effects on health are only expected to worsen if global warming continues without being addressed. As a result, it is important that we take steps to eliminate or at least reduce our impact on global warming.
4. What is the main cause of global warming?
The main cause of global warming is the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Greenhouse gases, such as carbon dioxide and methane trap heat within the Earth's atmosphere rather than allowing it to escape into space. Human activities have been responsible for a steady increase in greenhouse gas emissions over recent decades, which has resulted in global warming. In order to prevent further warming, there must be a decrease in the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Vedantu has covered up all the questions which you can find in this article about global warming. So, now you don't need to wander here and there to get information about global warming.
5. What are the effects of global warming on marine life?
The effects of global warming on marine life are already being felt, as warmer temperatures have led to the expansion of underwater deserts. As a result, there has been a decline in the populations of marine species and disruptions to their food chains. Coral reefs, in particular, are suffering from the effects of global warming, as they are being killed by warmer water temperatures and acidification. If global warming continues unchecked, it is feared that we could see a mass extinction of marine life.
6. What is Global warming?
A consistent rise in surface temperatures, because of increased emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants leading to severe climate change is known as "Global warming".
7. What are the leading issues of global warming?
A few common man-made causes include industrialization, use of vehicles, combustion of fossil fuels, deforestation, emission of CFCs etc. And natural causes include forest fires, melting glaciers leading to rise in sea level, volcanoes and imbalances in solar radiations.
8. What do you mean by ocean acidification?
When the acid content in the oceans increases owing to raised levels of polluted air circulation. It's known as Ocean acidification. It hampers marine life severely.
9. How can you control global warming?
Among the major solutions, a few common ones are Energy efficiency, setting a high price on carbon, vehicle fuel economy, usage of biofuels from organic waste, and protection of more and more forests.
10. How can global warming hamper our lives?
Harmful impacts include Rise in overall global temperature, threat to aquatic life, flooding, desertification due to scanty rainfall, and loss of habitation.
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10 ways you can help fight the climate crisis
This piece was originally published on 16 December 2021 and the latest update is based on UNEP's ActNow Speak Up! campaign .
The evidence is irrefutable : unless we act immediately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, we will not be able to stave off the worst consequences of climate change.
The world is already 1.2°C warmer than pre-industrial times and every fraction of a degree counts. Research shows that with 2°C of global warming we will have more intense droughts and more devastating floods, more wildfires and more storms.
As United Nations Secretary-General António Guterres said at the recent UN Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP26) , “Our fragile planet is hanging by a thread. We are still knocking on the door of climate catastrophe. It is time to go into emergency mode — or our chance of reaching net-zero will itself be zero.”
The outlook can seem depressing. But the good news is that there is a lot we can still do as individuals to change this narrative.
“The climate emergency demands action from all of us. We need to get to net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and everyone has a role to play,” said Niklas Hagelberg, UNEP’s Climate Change Coordinator. “We, as individuals, must change our consumption habits and pressure those who represent us – our employers, our politicians – to move rapidly to a low-carbon world.”
Here are 10 ways you can be part of the climate solution:
1. Spread the word
Encourage your friends, family and co-workers to reduce their carbon pollution. Join a global movement like Count Us In, which aims to inspire 1 billion people to take practical steps and challenge their leaders to act more boldly on climate. Organizers of the platform say that if 1 billion people took action, they could reduce as much as 20 per cent of global carbon emissions. Or you could sign up to the UN’s #ActNow campaign on climate change and sustainability and add your voice to this critical global debate.
2. Keep up the political pressure
Lobby local politicians and businesses to support efforts to cut emissions and reduce carbon pollution. #ActNow Speak Up has sections on political pressure and corporate action - and Count Us In also has some handy tips for how to do this. Pick an environmental issue you care about, decide on a specific request for change and then try to arrange a meeting with your local representative. It might seem intimidating but your voice deserves to be heard. If humanity is to succeed in tackling the climate emergency, politicians must be part of the solution. It’s up to all of us to keep up with the pressure.
3. Transform your transport
Transport accounts for around a quarter of all greenhouse gas emissions and across the world, many governments are implementing policies to decarbonize travel. You can get a head start: leave your car at home and walk or cycle whenever possible. If the distances are too great, choose public transport, preferably electric options. If you must drive, offer to carpool with others so that fewer cars are on the road. Get ahead of the curve and buy an electric car. Reduce the number of long-haul flights you take.
4. Rein in your power use
If you can, switch to a zero-carbon or renewable energy provider. Install solar panels on your roof. Be more efficient: turn your heating down a degree or two, if possible. Switch off appliances and lights when you are not using them and better yet buy the most efficient products in the first place (hint: this will save you money!). Insulate your loft or roof: you’ll be warmer in the winter, cooler in the summer and save some money too.
5. Tweak your diet
Eat more plant-based meals – your body and the planet will thank you. Today, around 60 per cent of the world’s agricultural land is used for livestock grazing and people in many countries are consuming more animal-sourced food than is healthy. Plant-rich diets can help reduce chronic illnesses, such as heart disease, stroke, diabetes and cancer.
The climate emergency demands action from all of us. We need to get to net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050 and everyone has a role to play.
6. Shop local and buy sustainable
To reduce your food’s carbon footprint, buy local and seasonal foods. You’ll be helping small businesses and farms in your area and reducing fossil fuel emissions associated with transport and cold chain storage. Sustainable agriculture uses up to 56 per cent less energy, creates 64 per cent fewer emissions and allows for greater levels of biodiversity than conventional farming. Go one step further and try growing your own fruit, vegetables and herbs. You can plant them in a garden, on a balcony or even on a window sill. Set up a community garden in your neighbourhood to get others involved.
7. Don’t waste food
One-third of all food produced is either lost or wasted. According to UNEP’s Food Waste Index Report 2021 , people globally waste 1 billion tonnes of food each year, which accounts for around 8-10 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. Avoid waste by only buying what you need. Take advantage of every edible part of the foods you purchase. Measure portion sizes of rice and other staples before cooking them, store food correctly (use your freezer if you have one), be creative with leftovers, share extras with your friends and neighbours and contribute to a local food-sharing scheme. Make compost out of inedible remnants and use it to fertilize your garden. Composting is one of the best options for managing organic waste while also reducing environmental impacts.
8. Dress (climate) smart
The fashion industry accounts for 8-10 per cent of global carbon emissions – more than all international flights and maritime shipping combined – and ‘fast fashion’ has created a throwaway culture that sees clothes quickly end up in landfills. But we can change this. Buy fewer new clothes and wear them longer. Seek out sustainable labels and use rental services for special occasions rather than buying new items that will only be worn once. Recycle pre-loved clothes and repair when necessary.
9. Plant trees
Every year approximately 12 million hectares of forest are destroyed and this deforestation, together with agriculture and other land use changes, is responsible for roughly 25 per cent of global greenhouse gas emissions. We can all play a part in reversing this trend by planting trees, either individually or as part of a collective. For example, the Plant-for-the-Planet initiative allows people to sponsor tree-planting around the world.
Check out this UNEP guide to see what else you can do as part of the UN Decade on Ecosystem Restoration , a global drive to halt the degradation of land and oceans, protect biodiversity, and rebuild ecosystems.
10. Focus on planet-friendly investments
Individuals can also spur change through their savings and investments by choosing financial institutions that do not invest in carbon-polluting industries. #ActNow Speak Up has a section on money and so does Count Us In . This sends a clear signal to the market and already many financial institutions are offering more ethical investments, allowing you to use your money to support causes you believe in and avoid those you don’t. You can ask your financial institution about their responsible banking policies and find out how they rank in independent research.
UNEP is at the front in support of the Paris Agreement goal of keeping the global temperature rise well below 2°C, and aiming - to be safe - for 1.5°C, compared to pre-industrial levels. To do this, UNEP has developed a Six-Sector Solution . The Six Sector Solution is a roadmap to reducing emissions across sectors in line with the Paris Agreement commitments and in pursuit of climate stability. The six sectors identified are Energy; Industry; Agriculture & Food; Forests & Land Use; Transport; and Buildings & Cities.
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- 7 climate action highlights to remember before COP26
- Climate Action Note - data you need to know
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- Act Now: the UN campaign for individual action
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Global Warming Definition
“Global warming is a gradual increase in the earth’s temperature generally due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased levels of carbon dioxide, CFCs, and other pollutants. “
Table of Contents
What is Global Warming?
Causes of global warming, man-made causes of global warming, natural causes of global warming, effects of global warming.
Global warming is the phenomenon of a gradual increase in the temperature near the earth’s surface. This phenomenon has been observed over the past one or two centuries. This change has disturbed the climatic pattern of the earth. However, the concept of global warming is quite controversial but the scientists have provided relevant data in support of the fact that the temperature of the earth is rising constantly.
There are several causes of global warming, which have a negative effect on humans, plants and animals. These causes may be natural or might be the outcome of human activities. In order to curb the issues, it is very important to understand the negative impacts of global warming.
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Let us have a detailed study of global warming, its causes and its effects.
Also Read: Environmental Issues
Following are the major causes of global warming:
Plants are the main source of oxygen. They take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen thereby maintaining environmental balance. Forests are being depleted for many domestic and commercial purposes. This has led to an environmental imbalance, thereby giving rise to global warming.
Use of Vehicles
The use of vehicles, even for a very short distance results in various gaseous emissions. Vehicles burn fossil fuels which emit a large amount of carbon dioxide and other toxins into the atmosphere resulting in a temperature increase.
With the excessive use of air conditioners and refrigerators, humans have been adding CFCs into the environment which affects the atmospheric ozone layer. The ozone layer protects the earth surface from the harmful ultraviolet rays emitted by the sun. The CFCs have led to ozone layer depletion making way for the ultraviolet rays, thereby increasing the temperature of the earth.
With the advent of industrialization, the temperature of the earth has been increasing rapidly. The harmful emissions from the factories add to the increasing temperature of the earth.
In 2013, the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change reported that the increase in the global temperature between 1880 and 2012 has been 0.9 degrees Celsius. The increase is 1.1 degrees Celsius when compared to the pre-industrial mean temperature.
Various farming activities produce carbon dioxide and methane gas. These add to the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and increase the temperature of the earth.
An increase in population means more people breathing. This leads to an increase in the level of carbon dioxide, the primary gas causing global warming, in the atmosphere.
Volcanoes are one of the largest natural contributors to global warming. The ash and smoke emitted during volcanic eruptions goes out into the atmosphere and affects the climate.
Water vapour is a kind of greenhouse gas. Due to the increase in the earth’s temperature, more water gets evaporated from the water bodies and stays in the atmosphere adding to global warming.
Permafrost is frozen soil that has environmental gases trapped in it for several years and is present below Earth’s surface. It is present in glaciers. As the permafrost melts, it releases the gases back into the atmosphere, increasing Earth’s temperature.
Forest blazes or forest fires emit a large amount of carbon-containing smoke. These gases are released into the atmosphere and increase the earth’s temperature resulting in global warming.
Also Read: Bergmann’s Rule
Following are the major effects of global warming:
Rise in Temperature
Global warming has led to an incredible increase in earth’s temperature. Since 1880, the earth’s temperature has increased by ~1 degrees. This has resulted in an increase in the melting of glaciers, which have led to an increase in the sea level. This could have devastating effects on coastal regions.
Threats to the Ecosystem
Global warming has affected the coral reefs that can lead to the loss of plant and animal lives. Increase in global temperatures has made the fragility of coral reefs even worse.
Global warming has led to a change in climatic conditions. There are droughts at some places and floods at some. This climatic imbalance is the result of global warming.
Spread of Diseases
Global warming leads to a change in the patterns of heat and humidity. This has led to the movement of mosquitoes that carry and spread diseases.
High Mortality Rates
Due to an increase in floods, tsunamis and other natural calamities, the average death toll usually increases. Also, such events can bring about the spread of diseases that can hamper human life.
Loss of Natural Habitat
A global shift in the climate leads to the loss of habitats of several plants and animals. In this case, the animals need to migrate from their natural habitat and many of them even become extinct. This is yet another major impact of global warming on biodiversity .
Frequently Asked Questions
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Where does global warming occur in the atmosphere, why is global warming a social problem, where does global warming affect polar bears.
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- NOAA Climate.gov - Climate Change: Global Temperature
- Natural Resources Defense Council - Global Warming 101
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- Table Of Contents
Human activity affects global surface temperatures by changing Earth ’s radiative balance—the “give and take” between what comes in during the day and what Earth emits at night. Increases in greenhouse gases —i.e., trace gases such as carbon dioxide and methane that absorb heat energy emitted from Earth’s surface and reradiate it back—generated by industry and transportation cause the atmosphere to retain more heat, which increases temperatures and alters precipitation patterns.
Global warming, the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near Earth’s surface over the past one to two centuries, happens mostly in the troposphere , the lowest level of the atmosphere, which extends from Earth’s surface up to a height of 6–11 miles. This layer contains most of Earth’s clouds and is where living things and their habitats and weather primarily occur.
Continued global warming is expected to impact everything from energy use to water availability to crop productivity throughout the world. Poor countries and communities with limited abilities to adapt to these changes are expected to suffer disproportionately. Global warming is already being associated with increases in the incidence of severe and extreme weather, heavy flooding , and wildfires —phenomena that threaten homes, dams, transportation networks, and other facets of human infrastructure. Learn more about how the IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report, released in 2021, describes the social impacts of global warming.
Polar bears live in the Arctic , where they use the region’s ice floes as they hunt seals and other marine mammals . Temperature increases related to global warming have been the most pronounced at the poles, where they often make the difference between frozen and melted ice. Polar bears rely on small gaps in the ice to hunt their prey. As these gaps widen because of continued melting, prey capture has become more challenging for these animals.
Read a brief summary of this topic
global warming , the phenomenon of increasing average air temperatures near the surface of Earth over the past one to two centuries. Climate scientists have since the mid-20th century gathered detailed observations of various weather phenomena (such as temperatures, precipitation , and storms) and of related influences on climate (such as ocean currents and the atmosphere’s chemical composition). These data indicate that Earth’s climate has changed over almost every conceivable timescale since the beginning of geologic time and that human activities since at least the beginning of the Industrial Revolution have a growing influence over the pace and extent of present-day climate change .
Giving voice to a growing conviction of most of the scientific community , the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was formed in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The IPCC’s Sixth Assessment Report (AR6), published in 2021, noted that the best estimate of the increase in global average surface temperature between 1850 and 2019 was 1.07 °C (1.9 °F). An IPCC special report produced in 2018 noted that human beings and their activities have been responsible for a worldwide average temperature increase between 0.8 and 1.2 °C (1.4 and 2.2 °F) since preindustrial times, and most of the warming over the second half of the 20th century could be attributed to human activities.
AR6 produced a series of global climate predictions based on modeling five greenhouse gas emission scenarios that accounted for future emissions, mitigation (severity reduction) measures, and uncertainties in the model projections. Some of the main uncertainties include the precise role of feedback processes and the impacts of industrial pollutants known as aerosols , which may offset some warming. The lowest-emissions scenario, which assumed steep cuts in greenhouse gas emissions beginning in 2015, predicted that the global mean surface temperature would increase between 1.0 and 1.8 °C (1.8 and 3.2 °F) by 2100 relative to the 1850–1900 average. This range stood in stark contrast to the highest-emissions scenario, which predicted that the mean surface temperature would rise between 3.3 and 5.7 °C (5.9 and 10.2 °F) by 2100 based on the assumption that greenhouse gas emissions would continue to increase throughout the 21st century. The intermediate-emissions scenario, which assumed that emissions would stabilize by 2050 before declining gradually, projected an increase of between 2.1 and 3.5 °C (3.8 and 6.3 °F) by 2100.
Many climate scientists agree that significant societal, economic, and ecological damage would result if the global average temperature rose by more than 2 °C (3.6 °F) in such a short time. Such damage would include increased extinction of many plant and animal species, shifts in patterns of agriculture , and rising sea levels. By 2015 all but a few national governments had begun the process of instituting carbon reduction plans as part of the Paris Agreement , a treaty designed to help countries keep global warming to 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) above preindustrial levels in order to avoid the worst of the predicted effects. Whereas authors of the 2018 special report noted that should carbon emissions continue at their present rate, the increase in average near-surface air temperature would reach 1.5 °C sometime between 2030 and 2052, authors of the AR6 report suggested that this threshold would be reached by 2041 at the latest.
The AR6 report also noted that the global average sea level had risen by some 20 cm (7.9 inches) between 1901 and 2018 and that sea level rose faster in the second half of the 20th century than in the first half. It also predicted, again depending on a wide range of scenarios, that the global average sea level would rise by different amounts by 2100 relative to the 1995–2014 average. Under the report’s lowest-emission scenario, sea level would rise by 28–55 cm (11–21.7 inches), whereas, under the intermediate emissions scenario, sea level would rise by 44–76 cm (17.3–29.9 inches). The highest-emissions scenario suggested that sea level would rise by 63–101 cm (24.8–39.8 inches) by 2100.
The scenarios referred to above depend mainly on future concentrations of certain trace gases, called greenhouse gases , that have been injected into the lower atmosphere in increasing amounts through the burning of fossil fuels for industry, transportation , and residential uses. Modern global warming is the result of an increase in magnitude of the so-called greenhouse effect , a warming of Earth’s surface and lower atmosphere caused by the presence of water vapour , carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxides , and other greenhouse gases. In 2014 the IPCC first reported that concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides in the atmosphere surpassed those found in ice cores dating back 800,000 years.
Of all these gases, carbon dioxide is the most important, both for its role in the greenhouse effect and for its role in the human economy. It has been estimated that, at the beginning of the industrial age in the mid-18th century, carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere were roughly 280 parts per million (ppm). By the end of 2022 they had risen to 419 ppm, and, if fossil fuels continue to be burned at current rates, they are projected to reach 550 ppm by the mid-21st century—essentially, a doubling of carbon dioxide concentrations in 300 years.
A vigorous debate is in progress over the extent and seriousness of rising surface temperatures, the effects of past and future warming on human life, and the need for action to reduce future warming and deal with its consequences. This article provides an overview of the scientific background and public policy debate related to the subject of global warming. It considers the causes of rising near-surface air temperatures, the influencing factors, the process of climate research and forecasting, the possible ecological and social impacts of rising temperatures, and the public policy developments since the mid-20th century. For a detailed description of Earth’s climate, its processes, and the responses of living things to its changing nature, see climate . For additional background on how Earth’s climate has changed throughout geologic time , see climatic variation and change . For a full description of Earth’s gaseous envelope, within which climate change and global warming occur, see atmosphere .
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'global warming effects'.
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global warming is the greatest threat to the environment .
ग्लोबल वार्मिंग पर्यावरण के लिए सबसे बड़ा खतरा है ।
are you excited by their plans on global warming ?
कि क्या आप ग्लोबल वार्मिंग के विषय में उनकी योजनाओं से उत्साहित हैं ?
global warming related page by the community of concerned scientist
well, the good news is, no global warming summit next month.
वैसे, अच्छी खबर कोई ग्लोबल वार्मिंग शिखर सम्मेलन अगले महीने के शुरू में है.
Last Update: 2017-10-12 Usage Frequency: 1 Quality: Reference: Anonymous
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UPSC CSE - GS
Geography - NCERT Summary
01- Introduction of Global Warming (in Hindi)
Lesson 1 of 10 • 2 upvotes • 7:57mins
This lesson will provide you with the basic introduction of global Warming and it's causes
(Hindi) Global Warming and Ozone Layer
10 lessons • 1h 9m
02- Overview of Green House Effect (in Hindi)
03- Effect of Global Warming (in Hindi)
04- IPCC (in Hindi)
05- INDC (in Hindi)
06- Paris Climate summit
07- Goals from Parris Summit
08- Ozone layer 01
09- Ozone layer 02
10- Ozone layer 03
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What is Global Warming : वायुमंडल में ग्रीनहाउस गैसों की उच्च सांद्रता पृथ्वी पर अधिक गर्मी बढ़ाने के लिए जिम्मेवार है ... Subscribe to our daily hindi newsletter . Subscribe.
ग्लोबल वार्मिंग (Global Warming): ग्लोबल वार्मिंग पर नवीनतम समाचार (news), Heat Wave, Ice Melting, हिमनद, ग्लेशियर Melting, Rising Sea level ( बढ़ता समुद्र स्तर) की समस्या और समाधान।
भूमंडलीय ऊष्मीकरण. 2011 से 2020 के दौरान औसत धरातलीय तापमान 1951 से 1980 तक के औसत तापमान से भिन्न है. भूमण्डलीय ऊष्मीकरण का अर्थ पृथ्वी के ...
ग्लोबल वार्मिंग: कारण और उपाय (Global Warming: Causes and Remedy) डाॅ. रमा मेहता. 29 जन॰ 2016. •. ग्लोबल वार्मिंग या वैश्विक तापमान बढ़ने का मतलब है कि पृथ्वी ...
Shakeel Anwar Updated: Jan 15, 2018 17:45 IST. Global Warming Effects and Causes in Hindi. वर्तमान में मानवीय गतिविधियों के कारण ...
Essay on global warming in hindi. इन सभी कारणों से वैश्विक स्तर पर तापमान में वृद्धि हुई है और जिस प्रकार से यह स्थिति चल रही है भविष्य में पृथ्वी से जीवन ...
Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth's average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels.
Stabilizing global temperature near its current level requires eliminating all emissions of heat-trapping gases or, equivalently, achieving a carbon-neutral society in which people remove as much carbon from the atmosphere as they emit.
Rising sea levels. Raging storms. Searing heat. Ferocious fires. Severe drought. Punishing floods. The effects of climate change are already threatening our health, our communities, our economy,...
then choose a project from the "YES" list to illustrate your point of view about what should be done to address global warming issues. If you answered NO, then choose a project from the "NO" list. NOTE: Feel free to develop project ideas of your own. Just get teacher approval on these BEFORE beginning your work to be sure they are ...
Global warming is the long-term warming of the planet's overall temperature. Though this warming trend has been going on for a long time, its pace has significantly increased in the last hundred years due to the burning of fossil fuels.As the human population has increased, so has the volume of . fossil fuels burned.. Fossil fuels include coal, oil, and natural gas, and burning them causes ...
There are many ways in which global warming will impact the environment. Global warming will cause an increase in temperatures, which will lead to the melting of glaciers and ice caps. This will result in a rise in sea levels, which will flood low-lying areas and coastal towns.
Hindi Translation of "global warming" | The official Collins English-Hindi Dictionary online. Over 100,000 Hindi translations of English words and phrases.
Hindi English: 19. Interactive Episode : Hindi English: Segment-4 Visible Impact of Climate Change : 20. Impact of Climate change-harmful impact: Hindi English: 21. Impact of Climate change-harmful impact: Hindi English: 22. Global Warming Refuges:-Hindi English: 23. Global Warming and emergence of new disease pattern & other health issues.-I ...
1. Spread the word. Encourage your friends, family and co-workers to reduce their carbon pollution. Join a global movement like Count Us In, which aims to inspire 1 billion people to take practical steps and challenge their leaders to act more boldly on climate.
Global warming leads to a change in the patterns of heat and humidity. This has led to the movement of mosquitoes that carry and spread diseases. High Mortality Rates Due to an increase in floods, tsunamis and other natural calamities, the average death toll usually increases.
Global Warming Effect. One of the most immediate and obvious effects of global warming is the increase in temperatures around the world. The average global temperature has increased by about 1.4 degrees Fahrenheit (0.8 degrees Celsius) over the past 100 years, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Simple ...
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Modern global warming is the result of an increase in magnitude of the so-called greenhouse effect, a warming of Earth's surface and lower atmosphere caused by the presence of water vapour, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides, and other greenhouse gases.
Know about Global warming effects in Hindi on NDTV.in, Explore Global warming effects with Articles, Photos, Video, न्यूज़, ताज़ा ख़बर in Hindi with NDTV India
Contextual translation of "global warming" into Hindi. Human translations with examples: वैश्विक, वैश्विक (g), भूमंडलीय ऊष्मीकरण.
Global Warming Potential(in Hindi) Lesson 5 of 33 • 4 upvotes • 8:48mins. Dr Jewa Tripathy. ... 33 lessons • 4h 58m . 1. Overview (in Hindi) 4:30mins. 2. Global Warming, Global Dimming, Greenhouse Effect, Radiation Forcing(in Hindi) 12:34mins. 3. Greenhouse Gases(in Hindi) 9:23mins. 4. Nitrous Oxide and Flourinated Gases(in Hindi)
10 lessons • 1h 9m. 1. 01- Introduction of Global Warming (in Hindi) 7:57mins. 2. 02- Overview of Green House Effect (in Hindi) 5:58mins. 3. 03- Effect of Global Warming (in Hindi)