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Special Issue "Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks"

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Special issue information.

A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292). This special issue belongs to the section " Microwave and Wireless Communications ".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 October 2021) | Viewed by 32570

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Dear Colleagues,

5G will support significantly faster mobile broadband speeds, low latency and reliable communications, as well as enabling the full potential of the Internet of Things (IoT). This will open up the possibility for new services such as tactile communications, smart manufacturing and cities, in addition to enhanced broadband connectivity. Pivotal to 5G is the use of the millimeter wave band, which will support a network of small cells enabling hotspot zones of high capacity and area efficiency. The forthcoming 5G system will truly be a mobile multimedia communication platform that constitutes a converged networking arena that not only includes legacy heterogeneous mobile networks, but advanced radio interfaces and the possibility to operate at mm wave frequencies to capitalise on the large swathe of available bandwidth. This will set in place extensive design requirements that even build on the latest 5G roll-out in the sub 6GHz band.   

Future emerging handsets and base stations will require antenna technology that is multimode in nature, energy efficient, and above all able to operate on the mm wave band in synergy with legacy 4G and sub-6GHz 5G. Antennas should be compact in nature, but with engineering requirements that include increased power, larger bandwidth, higher gain, and insensitivity to the hand-held effect of human users. This requires very innovative solutions in antenna design, which can operate in single and MIMO/Array configuration.

This Special Issue aims to bring together academic and industrial researchers to identify and discuss technical challenges and new results related to the design of 5G antennas.

Specific Topics

We invite researchers to contribute original research articles as well as review articles that seek to address the issues of antenna design for future emerging heterogeneous 5G applications. Submissions can focus on the research concept or applied research in topics including, but not limited to, the following:

Submissions should be of high quality for an international journal, and should not be submitted or published elsewhere. However, the extended versions of conference papers that show significant improvement (minimal of over 35%) can be considered for review in this Special Issue.  In addition, we welcome review papers covering the subjects of this Special Issue.

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Recent Advances in Antennas and Metasurfaces for 5G and beyond

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About this Research Topic

The continuous evolution in the field of antennas, in particular reconfigurable antennas and metasurfaces, is expected to support innovative applications with requirements not met with today’s technologies, such as massive-scale communications (within IoT), the Internet of senses, holographic communications, massive digital twinning/Extreme Reality, full autonomous driving and flying networks, with use cases in smart cities, smart home, health, media and factories. A disruptive concept has emerged recently called reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) or metasurfaces, where the world is envisioned as a smart radio environment, and these smart programmable antennas enable the revolutionary paradigm of the programmable wireless channel, where end-point devices become progressively simpler, smaller and more energy efficient. However, the propagation environment becomes software defined through the use of these smart surfaces composed of massive reflective elements integrated within the surface of ceilings, walls, furniture and other large surfaces in a floorplan. This can be practically achieved by distributing a massive amount of antennas, enabling for example energy focusing at each user, allowing for exciting new opportunities in communications, computing and sensing systems. Reconfigurable metasurfaces comprise an array of sub-wavelength scattering elements (or meta-atoms) that can be tuned to transform an incident EM wave into an arbitrarily tailored transmitted or reflected wavefront. This requires the employment of some form of material or component whose electromagnetic properties can be modified by an applied stimulus, e.g. by electronic, mechanical, optical or material property tuning. Examples of stimulus-sensitive materials include graphene, liquid crystals, and photoconductive semiconductors. Such reconfiguration opens the door to the fine control of antenna performance (working frequency, polarization mode, radiation pattern), but also more advanced electromagnetic functions such as wavefront shaping, polarization/dispersion/absorption control, holography, imaging, non-reciprocity, wireless power transfer, among others. This Research Topic targets contributions including conceptual studies, RF design, simulation, prototyping, experimental characterization as well as system and test-bed design, in the field of reconfigurable antennas and metasurfaces within (but not limited to) the following topics: - Antennas and metasurfaces for microwave, millimeter-wave (mmWave) and sub-THz frequencies. - Reconfigurable reflect and transmit arrays, and reconfigurable intelligent surfaces (RIS) - Study of electronic, mechanical, optical or material property tuning, including stimulus-sensitive materials such as graphene, liquid crystals, and photoconductive semiconductors, among others. - Holographic metasurface antenna for different beam-focusing applications. - Reconfigurable frequency selective surfaces and applications to antenna design - Near-field beamforming for antenna arrays and metasurfaces. - Beam focusing for near-field Multi-User MIMO. - Massively scalable MIMO antennas and arrays. - Antennas and beam control in sensing applications: medical, safety, factories/industrial inspection, among others. - Multi-beam beamforming network (BFN) designs. - Innovative measurements techniques for reconfigurable beam scanning patterns. - Study of advanced electromagnetic functions enabled by metasurfaces such as wavefront shaping, polarization/dispersion/absorption control, holography, imaging, non-reciprocity, wireless power transfer, among others.

Keywords : antenna array, metasurface, reconfigurable intelligent surface, beamforming, beam focusing, tuneable material, microwave, millimeter-wave, sub-THz.

Important Note : All contributions to this Research Topic must be within the scope of the section and journal to which they are submitted, as defined in their mission statements. Frontiers reserves the right to guide an out-of-scope manuscript to a more suitable section or journal at any stage of peer review.

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antenna design Recently Published Documents

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Investigation on Performance of Microstrip Patch Antenna for a Practical Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN) Application

Abstract: The performance of a microstrip patch antenna for a practical wireless local area network application is investigated in this research. This design is built around the transmission line concept. The antenna design substrate is FR4 (lossy) with a dielectric constant (Er) of 4.3 dielectric material, and the ground and patch materials are copper (annealed). The substrate is 71.62mm in width and 55.47mm in length. The height of the dielectric material is 1.6mm, which is the normal size for FR4 material. The conducting patch element has a width of 35.81mm and a length of 27.73mm for a resonance frequency of 2.573 GHz. A simulation with CST studio suite was used to optimise the antenna design. Keywords: Microstrio patch antenna, CST suite, WLAN application, Transmission line, Antenna design

Performance Improvement of Aperture Coupled MSA through Si Micromachining

In recent times rectangular patch antenna design has become the most innovative and popular subject due to its advantages, such as being lightweight, conformal, ease to fabricate, low cost and small size. In this paper design of aperture coupled microstrip patch antenna (MSA) on high index semiconductor material coupled with micromachining technique for performance enhancement is discussed. The performance in terms of return loss bandwidth, gain, cross-polarization and antenna efficiency is compared with standard aperture coupled antenna. Micromachining underneath of the patch helps in to reduce the effective dielectric constant, which is desirable for the radiation characteristics of the patch antenna. Improvement 36 percent and 18 percent in return loss bandwidth and gain respectively achieved using micromachined aperture coupled feed patch, which is due to the reduction in losses, suppression of surface waves and substrate modes. In this article along with design, fabrication aspects on Si substrate using MEMS process also discussed. Presented antenna design is proposed antenna can be useful in smart antenna arrays suitable in satellite, radar communication applications. Two topologies at X-band are fabricated and comparison between aperture coupled and micromachined aperture coupled are presented. Index Terms—Microstrip Patch Antenna, Aperture Coupled, Micromachining, High Resistivity Silicon

Isolation enhancement of metamaterial structure MIMO antenna for WiMAX/WLAN/ITU band applications

Abstract The μ-negative metamaterial (MNG) two-element MIMO antenna design was proposed in this article for WiMAX (2.5–2.8 GHz), WLAN (3.2–5.9 GHz), and ITU band (8.15−8.25 GHz) applications. The first design of the MIMO antenna operates at 2.7 and 4.9 GHz frequencies. In order to reduce the mutual coupling, a defective ground structure is used. For further isolation improvement, an MNG unit cell is placed in between the two radiating elements at a distance of 10 mm. The designed antenna elements have better than −23 dB coupling isolation between the two radiating elements. Moreover, with MNG an additional frequency of 8.2 GHz is obtained, which is useful for ITU band applications. The proposed antenna bandwidth is expanded by 19% in the lower operational band, 20% in the second operational band, and 32% in the higher frequency band with the MNG unit cell. From the analysis, the proposed antenna is suitable for WiMAX/WLAN/ITU band applications because of its low enveloped correlation coefficient, and highest directive gain and low mutual coupling between the radiating components. The proposed antenna was simulated, fabricated, and measured with the help of the Schwarz ZVL vector network analyzer and anechoic chamber. Both measured and simulated results are highly accurate and highly recommended for WiMAX/WLAN/ITU bands.

5G/B5G Internet of Things MIMO Antenna Design

The current and future wireless communication systems, WiFi, fourth generation (4G), fifth generation (5G), Beyond5G, and sixth generation (6G), are mixtures of many frequency spectrums. Thus, multi-functional common or shared aperture antenna modules, which operate at multiband frequency spectrums, are very desirable. This paper presents a multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO) antenna design for the 5G/B5G Internet of Things (IoT). The proposed MIMO antenna is designed to operate at multiple bands, i.e., at 3.5 GHz, 3.6 GHz, and 3.7 GHz microwave Sub-6 GHz and 28 GHz mm-wave bands, by employing a single radiating aperture, which is based on a tapered slot antenna. As a proof of concept, multiple tapered slots are placed on the corner of the proposed prototype. With this configuration, multiple directive beams pointing in different directions have been achieved at both bands, which in turn provide uncorrelated channels in MIMO communication. A 3.5 dBi realized gain at 3.6 GHz and an 8 dBi realized gain at 28 GHz are achieved, showing that the proposed design is a suitable candidate for multiple wireless communication standards at Sub-6 GHz and mm-wave bands. The final MIMO structure is printed using PCB technology with an overall size of 120 × 60 × 10 mm3, which matches the dimensions of a modern mobile phone.

Recent Advances in Antenna Design for 5G Heterogeneous Networks

Fifth-generation will support significantly faster mobile broadband speeds, low latency, and reliable communications, as well as enabling the full potential of the Internet of Things (IoT) [...]

Improved Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic Structural Antenna Design for near-HF Remote Sensing Applications

A planar low-profile meander antenna design for wireless terminal achieving low rf interference and high isolation in multi-antenna systems, multi frequency antenna design based on binary coding, dual-band rfid tag antenna design for uhf band applications with high read range performance, low profile uhf antenna design for low earth-observation cubesats, export citation format, share document.

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A Princeton lab has designed a new antenna that works 'like a transformer robot'

Photo by Sameer A. Khan/Fotobuddy

Sophisticated antenna arrays paired with high-frequency wireless chips act like superpowers for modern electronics, boosting everything from sensing to security to data processing. In his lab at Princeton,  Kaushik Sengupta  is working to expand those powers even further.

Kaushik Sengupta and flat sensors on a table

In recent years, Sengupta’s lab has designed antenna arrays that help engineers make strides toward  peering through matter ,  boosting communications  in canyons of skyscrapers, putting a  medical lab on a smart phone , and  encrypting critical data  with electromagnetic waves instead of software.

In a new article in Advanced Science, Sengupta’s research team presented a new type of antenna array based on the paper-folding art of origami. The shape-shifting array, designed like a folded paper box called a waterbomb, allows engineers to create a reconfigurable and adaptable radar imaging surface. To build the system, the team installed a new class of broadband metasurface antennas onto standard, flat panels. Then they connected a number of the antenna panels into a precisely designed origami surface with an offset checkerboard pattern. Through proper sequence of folding and unfolding the panels, the array assumes a variety of different shapes like curves, saddles and spheres.

With this ability to shift and expand, the system offers a wider resolution and has the ability to capture complex three-dimensional scenes beyond the capability of a standard antenna array. The waterbomb antenna can also morph its shape to manipulate electromagnetic waves in carefully calibrated ways. Combined with advanced algorithms, the waterbomb system can effectively process information from a wide range of electromagnetic fields. This shapeshifting ability allows engineers to expand the capabilities of devices used for sensing and imaging.

“For most applications, planar, or flat, systems are preferred because they are simpler and easier to design,” said Sengupta, an associate professor of  electrical and computer engineering . “But reconfigurable systems allow us to substantially expand our ability in computer imaging. Using origami, we are able to combine the simplicity of planar arrays with the expanded ability of reconfigurable systems. It’s like a transformer robot in action.”

Sengupta said origami-based arrays could vastly improve sensing technology needed for autonomous vehicles, robots and cyberphysical systems. The relative simplicity of the individual antenna systems also mean that the sensing arrays can be light and low-cost, making them easier to manufacture and deploy across a wide scale.

While rapid developments in energy and computation usually draw the most public attention, Sengupta and his colleagues at Princeton Engineering focus on the invisible wireless networks that allow these breakthroughs to empower society.

“You can think about all these really complex applications that are emerging — robotics, self-driving cars, smart cities, smart healthcare applications, artificial reality, virtual reality,” he said. “All of these things are sitting on that web of wireless communications.”

Any one of these applications would represent a major increase in demand for wireless networks. Together, they demand a fundamental rethinking of how we move data across the airwaves, both in terms of the microchips designed to handle the traffic and the signals transmitted by those chips. In brief, we need to pack far more information into signals and build computer systems that can process the information quickly, accurate and securely.

In the past few years, Sengupta’s research has been recognized on both fronts. In 2021, he was named  Outstanding Young Engineer  by the Microwave Theory and Techniques Society (MTT-S), a leading scientific society for wireless communications. Last year, he received the  New Frontier Award  for his work on microchips from the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), the world’s largest electrical engineering society.

From chip design to signal processing, the awards reflect the broad approach to research taken by Sengupta’s research team at the  Integrated Micro-Systems Research Lab . In recent years, his group has demonstrated technology to  expand into new frequency bands  for faster and more secure transmissions, developed  new sensing technology  for scientific and medical applications, and produced  methods to secure high-demand transmissions  without slowing down applications.

In the most recent project, involving waterbomb origami, Sengupta’s research team turned its focus from antenna arrays themselves into methods of shape-shifting multiple arrays into complex systems. The reconfigurable system not only allows for hyper-spectral sensing across a wide range of frequencies, it fuses the information together with the surface topology. This could prove valuable for vehicles and robots that require intensive communications while working in a variety of environments. It also could prove important for other electronic structures that require folding and tuning such as spacecraft and solar panels.

“By eliminating the constraints of flat-panel antenna arrays, we can combine principles of origami with high-frequency electronics and advanced signal processing to create versatile, highly efficient imaging and radar systems,” Sengupta said.

Sengupta said his research team’s technological approach varies across these projects, but the ultimate goal is to solve the challenges that changes will bring to the wireless world. One of those challenges is the data rates that the new applications will require. Take self-driving cars: Most of the focus is on the navigation technology or the processing power that an autonomous vehicle will require, but one of the greatest challenges is creating a wireless network to support the new technology.

“Think about the information deluge of a self-driving car,” he said. Even a single car will require a vast amount of data to navigate a complex road system. For multiple cars sharing a highway, the demands for data will increase even further. “You need very high bandwidth connections, so you need to think about frequencies that we have not used before.”

Medical technology is similarly poised for a massive change, with real-time health monitoring and new devices such as bandages that communicate with remote doctors and adjust treatment based on the patient’s condition.

All of these developments will demand more speed, higher amounts of data delivery and tighter security than modern networks are capable of delivering. Sengupta said solving those problems will require work at both the level of new microchips and the frequencies used to transmit signals.

“The approaches we pursue are multidisciplinary,” he said. “Our approach is to leverage concepts from different fields and merge them to create high-performance systems.”

“ Origami Microwave Imaging Array: Metasurface Tiles on a Shape-Morphing Surface for Reconfigurable Computational Imaging ,” was published Oct. 5, 2022 in Advanced Science. Besides Sengupta, authors include Suresh Venhatesh of North Carolina State University; Daniel Sturm of the Princeton University class of 2019, now a graduate student at the University of Washington; Xuyang Lu of the University of Michigan-Shanghai Jiao Rong University Joint Institute; and Robert J. Lang of Lang Origami. The project was supported in part by the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Momental Foundation.

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Tutorial and Research Trends in Antenna Technology

Antennas and antenna arrays serve as the “eyes and ears” for all wireless systems. 1-6 According to IEEE Standard (145-1983), 7 an antenna may be defined simply as “a means for transmitting and receiving radio waves.” The antenna serves as a transducer between the transmitter and the free space or between the medium and the receiver. In a broad sense, antennas may be classified into three categories, namely isotropic, omnidirectional and directional (see Figure 1 ). The isotropic antenna is a hypothetical concept of unity gain in all directions. 3 It serves as a benchmark by which to measure practical antenna elements. An omnidirectional antenna is the closest realization of an isotropic antenna with almost constant gain in one plane of reference (azimuth or elevation), 3 finding widespread use in broadcast applications. Directional antennas have higher directional gain and narrower radiation patterns (beams), desirable for applications like radio detection and ranging (radar) and point-to-point communications. 1-6


Michael Faraday, in 1830, introduced loop antenna as the part of his experiments studying the coupling of electric and magnetic fields. 8 Later Heinrich Hertz 8 discovered electromagnetic (EM) waves and designed a dipole antenna. In 1901, Guglielmo Marconi 8 sent information across Atlantic Ocean using multiple vertical wires connected to the ground. This was the first use of antenna arrays. 3 Maxwell 3, 8 wrote the first treatise on EM theory congregating principles postulated by Oersted, Faraday, Gauss and others, popularly known as Maxwell’s equations (see Figure 2 ). It is shown by Maxwell that any accelerated charge radiates, and hence, an antenna may be defined as an EM device that controls the flow of the time varying currents; thereby, producing EM radiation.


The antenna structure may be considered to have three sections, namely an EM generator, a guiding structure and a transition region (see Figure 3 ). Figure 3 is the result of a finite element method (FEM) simulation of a horn antenna showing the flow of rf energy in the respective sections. An EM generator inputs the EM wave into the guiding structure (the input of the flared horn), which directs it into the transition region. The transition region is a matching transformer, matching the impedance of guide with 377 ohms, the free space impedance. The EM wave escapes from the transition region into the free space, hence, causing the antenna to radiate.


Although the list of existing antenna types is too vast to summarize here, a few are selected and discussed, based on their commercial and military applications.

Antenna Basics

Antenna Qualifying Parameters (AQPs)

An antenna may be described quantitatively in terms of space and circuit parameters (see Figure 4 ). AQPs define the radiation and the impedance characteristics of an antenna, respectively, and are listed below: 3

1. Antenna Gain, G and directivity (directive gain), D

2. Antenna temperature, T

3. Radiation resistance, R

4. Half power beam width, BW 3dB

5. Pointing, look direction or scan angle

6. Sidelobe level (SLL) characteristics, such as peak SLL (PSLL), average SLL (ASLL).

7. Cross-polarization (x-pol) characteristics

8. Axial ratio (AR)


G measures directionality of an antenna pattern with reference to an isotropic antenna (G=1), thus, measurable in dBi (i for isotropic). It is different from D in the sense that it accounts for the various losses in conductors, space (radiation) and guides (dielectric or air), 3 not included in directive gain, D. Hence, G is always less than D. BW 3dB is the angular distance between the two – 3 dB points from the maximum, or peak, of the radiation pattern’s main beam. Look direction defines the direction in which the antenna pattern’s main beam is pointing while the array is scanning mechanically (using servo motors) or electronically (using digitally applied phase shifts to the elements of an array). 4 Figure 5 shows a typical radiation pattern for a directional antenna. Apart from the main lobe (ML), which is desired, there are other unwanted lobes of much smaller magnitude in comparison to the ML, called sidelobes and characterized by SLL.


Antenna Classification

Figure 7 shows a classification of various antenna geometries. It includes wire antennas, traveling wave antennas, reflector antennas, microstrip antennas, log-periodic antennas, aperture antennas and others such as near field communications (NFC) antennas and fractal antennas. An individual antenna element may have a gain from 0 dBi (monopole) to 10-12 dBi (e.g. tapered slot antenna and helical) depending upon the type.

Depending upon specifications such as power handling, G, SLL, size, weight and volume, a class may be chosen for certain applications. Astronomical radio telescope antennas, for example, require very high gain and high-power handling capabilities along with open installations in large areas exposed to different, and often severe, topological and environmental conditions. These requirements are typically fulfilled by reflector antenna arrays. 3 For platforms with limited real estate such as high altitude platforms (HAPS) 2 and fighter aircraft, microstrip antennas are useful, being light weight, low profile and conformable in nature. Traveling wave antennas and log-periodic antennas are very useful for ultra-wideband and high-power handling applications. Fractal antennas are useful for realization of embedded antenna structures inside mobile handsets. The planar inverted folded antenna (PIFA) is a good structure for body-wearable conformal antennas applications. Antenna arrays are useful for applications such as radar, requiring high gain for detection at longer ranges and directional beams for target tracking. 4


Antenna Arrays

Some applications require antennas with high gain, narrow BW 3dB and electronic beam steering. These are requirements that cannot be met easily with a single antenna. For these applications, antenna clusters known as antenna arrays must be used. 3 For a N-element array, G equals N times the single antenna gain, Go, i.e,


BW 3dB is inversely proportional to G, i.e.,


typically for equally fed array elements. 3

Antenna arrays can be classified into three main categories (see Figure 8 ):


Generalized Expression for Directivity, D

D of an antenna array may be defined as 9


The directivity and gain of antenna are related by


The operational bandwidth (OBW) of an antenna may be defined as the range of the frequency points over which the antenna space and circuit parameters, measurable in terms of AQPs, are within desired limits defined by the user. The OBW may be classified in terms of radiation bandwidth and impedance bandwidth. 3

Research Trends in AntennaS AND Antenna Arrays

Several current research areas include, but are not limited to:

1. Microstrip reflect arrays

2. Reconfigurable microstrip antennas

3. Body-wearable antennas

4. Multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antennas

5. Ultra-wideband antennas (UWB)

6. Metamaterial antennas

7. Connected array antenna

8. Windscreen antenna

9. Fractal antennas

10. Smart antennas

11. Defected Ground Structure (DGS)/electromagnetic band gap (EBG) Antennas

12. Conformal Antenna Arrays

13. Shared Aperture Antennas

14. Radar antennas

Microstrip Reflect Arrays

The concept was introduced by Berry et al. 10 in 1963 using waveguide and was later realized using microstrip technology. 11-16 Reflector antennas and phased arrays form the working principle for reflect array antennas (see Figure 9 ). The variation in size and geometry of planar antenna elements leads to an equivalent phase shift imitating parabolic reflector behavior. The reflector intercepts the impinged wave from a radiator placed at its focal point and scatters back the energy, which collimates due to its designed geometry, and forms a radiated beam. It has associated space loss and spillover loss. A phased array, on the other hand, includes an RF network including phase shifters, attenuators, amplifiers and feed network to receive/transmit energy; thus, there is an associated RF loss. A reflect array antenna overcomes these issues. A reflect array is a phase transformation structure where most of the elements are near resonance; hence, it provides an alternative to a conventional parabolic reflector antenna.


Samaiyar et al. 14 discuss an application of reflect arrays for the realization of simultaneous transmit and receive operation at 5.8 GHz in the ISM band. Fukaya et al. 15 describe a Tx and an Rx reflect array satellite antenna comprising multiple horns and a single-layer flat reflect array that radiates scanning beams along different directions in azimuth by virtue of polarization and frequency. A reflect array designed using tightly coupled dipole arrays (TCDAs) operates from 3.4 to 10.6 GHz. 16 The microstrip reflect array antenna has been demonstrated to be a practical alternative to bulky reflector antennas and costly phased arrays.

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Antenna Metrology Theory and Applications

Antennas and em interactions with life sciences, antennas and radios for localisation and tele-control, bio-electromagnetics for healthcare and security applications, body-centric wireless communication, digital and additive manufacturing of antennas, electromagnetic compatibility, metamaterials and transformation optics, microgrid/green and power electronics, microwave & millimetrewave power devices, quasi-optics and millimetre-wave/thz antennas and devices, reconfigurable antennas, arrays and microwave devices, ir/thz spectroscopy for space exploration, 5g and beyond, our archive.

The Antennas & Electromagnetics research group has a strong team of academics and researchers working on various areas related to antenna engineering, bio-electromagnetic, novel materials for enhanced performance, antenna and electromagnetics (EM) theory and metrology concepts. The group has established excellent collaborations and links with many academic and industrial partners working locally and globally, specifically in antennas and EM problems, but also ranging to problems for wireless communications and medical applications. Interdisciplinary research interfacing with life sciences, social sciences and medicine is at the heart of our current research activities and clearly shapes our grant portfolio.

Our current research activities are interdisciplinary and adventurous with high impact academically, commercially and socially, within the local community and globally.

Our current research themes include:

Research into microwave and millimetre-wave antenna metrology

By exposing certain chemical materials to high intensity THz radiation we hope to influence the design and synthesis of such materials, thereby enhancing the synthetic chemist’s toolkit.

Motion capture is being studied in many areas such as animation, health care, sport science, robotic tele-operation and human computer interaction.

Work includes but not limited to: Dosimetry and development of full body SAR model for handset antennas.

The development of wearable computer systems has been growing rapidly. These are becoming smaller and more lightweight; no one wants to wear a bulky and heavy computer all day!

Research into Difital/Additive Manufacturing of Antennas

Research into Electromagnetic Complatibility

Our work covers a very broad range of research topics in metamaterials, including electromagnetic bandgap structures, high impedance surfaces and partially reflective surfaces.

Research for Reliability Monitoring of EV power electronics, and multi-agent control of microgrids

Research into microwave and millimetre-wave power devices

Since the late 1980s, the Group has built up a considerable reputation for work in millimetre-wave antennas, both in measurements and theory. This has been extended into the Terahertz region of the spectrum in recent years.

Radio Frequency (RF) communications have existed for centuries, and the frequency spectrum for these communications is an increasingly congested resource, particularly below 30GHz.

Research into THz spectroscopy for space exploration

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