Beekeeping & Honey Bee Farm Business Plan Template

Written by Dave Lavinsky

honey bee farm business plan

Honey Beekeeping Business Plan

Over the past 20+ years, we have helped over 500 entrepreneurs and business owners create business plans to start and grow their beekeeping business.

If you’re unfamiliar with creating a business plan, you may think creating one will be a time-consuming and frustrating process. For most entrepreneurs it is, but for you, it won’t be since we’re here to help. We have the experience, resources, and knowledge to help you create a great business plan.

In this article, you will learn some background information on why business planning is important. Then, you will learn how to write a honey bee farm business plan step-by-step so you can create your plan today.

Download our Ultimate Business Plan Template here >

What Is a Business Plan?

A business plan provides a snapshot of your honey bee farm as it stands today, and lays out your growth plan for the next five years. It explains your beekeeping business goals and your strategies for reaching them. It also includes market research to support your plans.  

Why You Need a Business Plan

If you’re looking to start a honey bee farm or grow your existing beekeeping business , you need a business plan. A business plan will help you raise funding, if needed, and plan out the growth of your honey bee farm to improve your chances of success. Your business plan is a living document that should be updated annually as your company grows and changes.  

Sources of Funding for Beekeeping Business

With regards to funding, the main sources of funding for a beekeeping business are personal savings, credit cards, bank loans, and angel investors. When it comes to bank loans, banks will want to review your business plan and gain confidence that you will be able to repay your loan and interest. To acquire this confidence, the loan officer will not only want to ensure that your financials are reasonable, but they will also want to see a professional plan. Such a plan will give them the confidence that you can successfully and professionally operate a business. Personal savings and bank loans are the most common funding paths for beekeeping businesses.

How to Write a Business Plan for a Honey Bee Farm or Beekeeping Business

If you want to start a honey bee farm or expand your current one, you need a business plan. The guide below details the necessary information for how to write each essential component of your business plan.  

Executive Summary

Your executive summary provides an introduction to your business plan, but it is normally the last section you write because it provides a summary of each key section of your plan.

The goal of your executive summary is to quickly engage the reader. Explain to them the kind of beekeeping business you are running and the status. For example, are you a startup, do you have a honey bee farm that you would like to grow, or are you operating a chain of beekeeping businesses?

Next, provide an overview of each of the subsequent sections of your plan.

Company Overview

In your company overview, you will detail the type of honey bee farm you are operating.

For example, you might specialize in one of the following types of honey bee farms:

In addition to explaining the type of beekeeping business you will operate, the company overview needs to provide background on the business.

Include answers to questions such as:

Industry Analysis

In your industry or market analysis, you need to provide an overview of the beekeeping industry.

While this may seem unnecessary, it serves multiple purposes.

First, researching the honey bee farm industry educates you. It helps you understand the market in which you are operating.

Secondly, market research can improve your marketing strategy, particularly if your analysis identifies market trends.

The third reason is to prove to readers that you are an expert in your industry. By conducting the research and presenting it in your plan, you achieve just that.

The following questions should be answered in the industry analysis section of your beekeeping business plan:

Customer Analysis

The customer analysis section of your business plan must detail the customers you serve and/or expect to serve.

The following are examples of customer segments: individuals, schools, families, and corporations.

As you can imagine, the customer segment(s) you choose will have a great impact on the type of beekeeping you operate. Clearly, individuals would respond to different marketing promotions than corporations, for example.

Try to break out your target customers in terms of their demographic and psychographic profiles. With regards to demographics, including a discussion of the ages, genders, locations, and income levels of the potential customers you seek to serve.

Psychographic profiles explain the wants and needs of your target customers. The more you can recognize and define these needs, the better you will do in attracting and retaining your customers.  

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Competitive Analysis

Your competitive analysis should identify the indirect and direct competitors your business faces and then focus on the latter.

Direct competitors are other beekeeping businesses.

Indirect competitors are other options that customers have to purchase from that aren’t directly competing with your product or service. This includes other types of honey or sweet treats for consumers other methods of pollination for farmers.

For each such competitor, provide an overview of their business and document their strengths and weaknesses. Unless you once worked at your competitors’ businesses, it will be impossible to know everything about them. But you should be able to find out key things about them such as

With regards to the last two questions, think about your answers from the customers’ perspective. And don’t be afraid to ask your competitors’ customers what they like most and least about them.

The final part of your competitive analysis section is to document your areas of competitive advantage. For example:

Think about ways you will outperform your competition and document them in this section of your plan.  

Marketing Plan

Traditionally, a marketing plan includes the four P’s: Product, Price, Place, and Promotion. For a beekeeping business, your marketing strategy should include the following:

Product : In the product section, you should reiterate the type of honey bee farm that you documented in your company overview. Then, detail the specific products or services you will be offering. For example, will you provide honey, beeswax, bee rental, or bee sales?

Price : Document the prices you will offer and how they compare to your competitors. Essentially in the product and price sub-sections of your plan, you are presenting the products and/or services you offer and their prices.

Place : Place refers to the site of your honey bee farm. Document where your farm is situated and mention how the site will impact your success. For example, is your honey bee farm located near a busy retail district, your backyard, adjacent to another type of farm, or a standalone piece of land? Discuss how your site might be the ideal location for your customers.

Promotions : The final part of your honey bee farm marketing plan is where you will document how you will drive potential customers to your location(s). The following are some promotional methods you might consider:

Operations Plan

While the earlier sections of your business plan explained your goals, your operations plan describes how you will meet them. Your operations plan should have two distinct sections as follows.

Everyday short-term processes include all of the tasks involved in running your honey bee farm, including answering calls, caring for bees, collecting and packaging honey, and meeting with customers.

Long-term goals are the milestones you hope to achieve. These could include the dates when you expect to obtain your Xth colony, or when you hope to reach $X in revenue. It could also be when you expect to expand your honey bee farm to a new location.  

Management Team

To demonstrate your honey bee farm’s potential to succeed, a strong management team is essential. Highlight your key players’ backgrounds, emphasizing those skills and experiences that prove their ability to grow a company.

Ideally, you and/or your team members have direct experience in managing honey bee farms. If so, highlight this experience and expertise. But also highlight any experience that you think will help your business succeed.

If your team is lacking, consider assembling an advisory board. An advisory board would include 2 to 8 individuals who would act as mentors to your business. They would help answer questions and provide strategic guidance. If needed, look for advisory board members with experience in managing a honey bee farm.  

Financial Plan

Your financial plan should include your 5-year financial statement broken out both monthly or quarterly for the first year and then annually. Your financial statements include your income statement, balance sheet, and cash flow statements.

Income Statement

An income statement is more commonly called a Profit and Loss statement or P&L. It shows your revenue and then subtracts your costs to show whether you turned a profit or not.

In developing your income statement, you need to devise assumptions. For example, are you selling honey for $5 per jar? And will sales grow by 2% or 10% per year? As you can imagine, your choice of assumptions will greatly impact the financial forecasts for your business. As much as possible, conduct research to try to root your assumptions in reality.

Balance Sheets

Balance sheets show your assets and liabilities. While balance sheets can include much information, try to simplify them to the key items you need to know about. For instance, if you spend $50,000 on building out your honey bee farm, this will not give you immediate profits. Rather it is an asset that will hopefully help you generate profits for years to come. Likewise, if a lender writes you a check for $50,000, you don’t need to pay it back immediately. Rather, that is a liability you will pay back over time.

Cash Flow Statement

Your cash flow statement will help determine how much money you need to start or grow your business, and ensure you never run out of money. What most entrepreneurs and business owners don’t realize is that you can turn a profit but run out of money and go bankrupt.

When creating your Income Statement and Balance Sheets be sure to include several of the key costs needed in starting or growing a honey bee farm:

Attach your full financial projections in the appendix of your plan along with any supporting documents that make your plan more compelling. For example, you might include your honey bee farm location lease or a list of testimonials from satisfied customers.  

Writing a business plan for your honey bee farm is a worthwhile endeavor. If you follow the template above, by the time you are done, you will truly be an expert. You will understand the honey bee farm industry, your competition, and your customers. You will develop a marketing strategy and will understand what it takes to launch and grow a successful honey bee farm.  

Beekeepng Business Plan FAQs

What is the easiest way to complete my honey bee farm business plan.

Growthink's Ultimate Business Plan Template allows you to quickly and easily write your honey bee farm business plan.

How Do You Start a Honey Bee Farm Business?

Starting a honey bee farm business is easy with these 14 steps:

Finish Your Honey Bee Farm Business Plan in 1 Day!

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Click here to see how Growthink’s business plan services can give you a winning business plan.  

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Creating A Beekeeping Business Plan

Updated: 30th April 2021

Here are some factors to consider if you are drawing up a beekeeping business plan (and a free template for you to use), whether you wish to become a honey producer, or are wanting to offer a variety of products and services related to beekeeping, honey bees and hives. 

On the one hand, you may be able to earn a living from keeping bees, but like all businesses, there are potential pitfalls.

PDF Template At the bottom of this page, you'll find a PDF business plan template you can adapt and use for your own purposes. 

Below, we will first look at the following topics:

If you require a loan to help you get started, then you will need to demonstrate to the lender that you have thought about the business in detail. 

Consider things from the lender’s perspective: if you were in his or her shoes, would you loan money to this new beekeeping business based on the plan and information you are being presented with? 

In addition, you need to work through the details yourself, so that you can have confidence, minimize your risks and have a genuine chance of success.

Drawing Up A Beekeeping Business Plan – some initial considerations:

It sounds obvious, but.....are you an experienced beekeeper? 

If not, best get some experience first, and ensure you:

How Can Beekeepers Earn Income From Keeping Bees?

You may have a firm idea already of how beekeeping is going to earn an income for you, but it's also worth trying to think outside the box, and look at offering a multiple range of products (and maybe even services), in order to build your income across the seasons.

comb honey on a plate, with honey oozing out of the wax comb.

However, whether you decide to focus only on being a honey producer, or selling a wider range of product and services, you’ll need to estimate your potential earnings, and add these to your business plan.

Here are some ideas of what your business might include:

In thinking about your business, put a great deal of thought into whether it is something you can start up as a hobby (perhaps whilst continuing with your day job), and build it from there.

As I write, I am aware that some large commercial honey sellers run training schemes whereby you can earn whilst you learn.  As far as I can make out, the salary is modest, but if you are especially keen, it may be a way for you to get valuable experience if that is what you need. 

However, do check first regarding whether or not you are then tied to supplying the company with honey etc for a set period of time, and whether this suits you, and also whether you are happy to supply honey in this way.  In addition, check whether you would have to sign an agreement forbidding you to set up a business entirely of your own.

Some beekeepers prefer to set up small-scale, organic practices, charging a premium for their products, selling directly to the public or specialist delicatessens.

A Beekeeping Business Plan Needs To Cover Finances: costs, sales, cash flow, profit & loss

Consider these costs:

Financial challenges can hit any business.

Researching Your Beekeeping Business

Find out as much as you can about the market, products, services, prices, your customers, relevant  law, prior to committing yourself.

Ask yourself the What? Who? Where? and How? Why? questions.

For example (no doubt, you can come up with more):


Having considered these questions, what actions need to be taken, when, by whom and at what cost?

Marketing And Your Beekeeping Business Plan

There are many cost effective ways to sell and promote your products. 

A SWOT Analysis For A Beekeeping Business

It’s worth doing a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats) for your beekeeping business plan, as with any other business plan.

Make a list, and decide whether there are actions you can take.  Don’t run before you can walk, or over-stretch yourself, however.

Here are some examples (let me stress that -  examples only! )

General Administration

This is often forgotten, but.....

More Beekeeping Business Tips

Hopefully you will be able to keep your set up and business running costs to a minimum. 

You can use the  - free beekeeping business plan template a PDF download (please note, it will open in a new window) to help you get started, but ensure that you add any legal considerations applicable to your own country.  

Are Cuprinol and Creosote safe to use on a bee hive?

The Flow Hive - is there a problem with plastic in bee hives?

Where Can I Sell My Used Bee Hives?

How to clean used beekeeping equipment

Are honey bees domesticated?

honey bees on cirsium vulgare links to page 'are honey bees domesticated?'


StartupBiz Global

Starting Honey Beekeeping Business Plan (PDF)

Honey Beekeeping Farming Business Plan

Apiculture, the rearing of honey bees at a commercial scale has become a fast growing business venture all over the world. The maintenance of honeybees and hives has been providing farmers and hobbyists with a variety of business opportunities such as the production of honey, beeswax, and other edible bee products in addition to crop pollination services, and the sale of bees to other beekeepers. Due to the increase in the demand for natural and healthy alternatives to artificial sweeteners, starting a beekeeping farming project is a lucrative business for small and large scale farmers.  This article will outline how to start the honey beekeeping business, and the honey bee farming business plan – PDF, Word and Excel.

Honey beekeeping is a lucrative business project that is providing income for a lot  of people. There are some important things you need to consider before you setup such a business. You need to gather the correct resources, decide on the size of your honey bee farming project this includes the number of your bee hives/colonies; location of honey beekeeping business, as well as your target market. These factors will be determined by the amount of capital you have. If you do not have a lot of capital, you can always start small and grow your honey bee farming business overtime. You also need to carry out market research (Who are you going to sell the honey to? At what price?) and write a honey beekeeping business plan before you start the project.

Land for Honey Beekeeping Business

When setting up your honey beekeeping business, you obviously require land. You can keep the bees in urban, suburban, and rural areas but remember that certain types of land and land factors will be much more favourable for bees and beekeeping than others. The land where bees are kept is referred to as an apiary or bee yard. The location of the apiary is of the essence in honey beekeeping business as it determines the success of the honey bee farming venture. Nectar and pollen sources must be close to the bee hives. This is because pollen plays a crucial role in brood rearing, honey production and nectar comprises a basic energy source for bees.  Bees can be kept at varied locations; none the less, large concentrations of floral sources as well as populous colonies are needed to produce good honey output. The natural source of nectar and pollen are flowering trees and plants.

You need to consider water availability, climate, forage, as well as the possibility of predators when selecting where your bees live and produce honey. Although honey bees can adapt to different types of environments do not forget that climatic conditions have an effect on the bees. That means if your environment gets cold, you should avoid keeping your hives in areas with poor air flow (such areas create cool, moist conditions) as that will negatively affect your bees during the cold winter. Sun exposure and dry conditions are great for the hives but you should not let the hives overheat. Shaded locations hinder flight of bee workers as well as finding the queen and sighting eggs within the cells. Bees generally tend to become irritable and difficult to handle in poorly located areas. As such, an ideal spot with maximum sunshine through the day should be selected.  Make sure that there is a proper water source nearby so that your bees do not have to use up a lot of energy to fly to a far source. You can set up your own water source but make sure that it’s at least 15 feet away from the hive so that the bees can orient themselves around it. Not to forget forage, ensure that there is a constant supply of pollen and nectar from spring to fall from various fruits, vegetables, flowers, herbs, and other plants around your colony. In addition, in order for the honey beekeeping business to be successful, it is necessary for land to be dry with superior air drainage. Windy areas should be avoided; the same applies to exposed hill tops or river banks with a potential of flooding. Take care that selected land for the honey bee farming business is free from pesticides that may cause harm to insects, particularly when they are kept in farming land used for grain among other plants. Your honey bee farming business plan should take into account the cost of purchasing or renting the land.

Good bee hives are essential when operating a profitable beekeeping business. There are many different types of bee hives developed for honey beekeeping. Example of beehives include f ixed comb hives, top-bar hives, frame hives,  Kenyan top bar hive and the Langstroth hive. When a lot of people think of a beehives, most of them picture a Langstroth, this is because this is one of the oldest beehive invented around the 1850’s. The design has changed over the years, but this beehive is still convenient for your beekeeping enterprise.  The key innovation with this beehive is the use of convenient vertically-hanging frames that allow bees to build their comb. You can also consider a Warre beehive, that looks like a mini-Langstroth for your project. The Warre has a series of simple slats from the top of each box which allows the bees to build their comb vertically downwards. The Top Bar Hive is another beehive you can consider for your honey beekeeping business. This is the most recent design, which is more comfortable and presents the bees with a convenient height. There are no heavy, honey-laden boxes to lift, only individual frames of comb. From these most common beehives, you can select one that is suitable for your project. Beehives are often made out of wood which offers durability, flexibility and convenience. Wood housing also improves the colony’s efficiency to regulate hive interior temperature and humidity. It is advisable to externally paint the hive bodies and supers white or any other colour that has an action of radiating direct heat from the sun. In addition, painted housing tends to last longer hence the suggestion. The costs of purchasing the beehives should be included in the beekeeping business plan.

Equipment For Beekeeping Business

When it comes to equipment, there is some basic equipment that you must have for your beekeeping project in addition to a beehive. You must have wooden frames that hold sheets of beeswax, plus a smoker to calm bees and reduce stinging. You can use a pine straw, grass and burlap to make a good smoker fuel. Invest in a veil and gloves to protect your head and arms from stings. Other p rotective clothing required for honey beekeeping includes bee suit/overalls and gumboots. You will also need feeders to hold sugar syrup that you can feed to your bees. A hive tool set (bee brush, hive opener and stainless-steel knife) is also required. Processing equipment required depend on the size of the honey beekeeping business.  Honey processing equipment include storage containers, refractometer, centrifuge honey extractor and honey press. The costs of the equipment should be included in the honey beekeeping business plan. 

Honey Bee Colony

You obviously need bees when starting the beekeeping business. There are different ways to acquire the bees. Some of these include buying from an existing colony, starting from a small “nucleus” colony that you can buy from another beekeeper, capturing a swarm or splitting an existing colony. You can start with a honey bee colony that is bought from a reputable producer. That would be a good way to ensure that the colony you have is healthy and of a particular breed. The entire honey bee farming business is centred on the honey bee colony. Honey bees live in colonies. Therefore, make sure that you purchase bees from reputable and accredited breeders. There are other to factors to consider when buying the colony, which include the temperament, docility, colour, productivity and disease resistance of the queen. Each colony will be having about 10,000 to 60,000 bees. The honey bee colony is made up of three types of bees. A bee colony is comprised of a queen (fertile female), a few hundred drones (males) and thousands of workers (sterile females).   A honey bee colony is comprised of a single queen. The role of the queen is to lay eggs. Queen bees are raised from the same eggs as worker bees, but are provided with more food for increased productivity. She lays the most eggs during the first year, about 2500 to 3000 per day. Bees referred to as workers carry out different operations within the colony. They collect nectar and pollen, make honey and wax, feed the queen, tend to eggs, build and repair the comb. They are also responsible for cleaning and controlling temperature within the colony. The male bees are called drones and their sole purpose is to mate with the queen. So each hive will be comprised of one bee colony. Thus the size of your honey beekeeping business will be determined by the number of bee hives/bee colonies that you have. The honey bee farming business plan should include the costs of acquiring the bee colonies.

Feed For Bees

Feed and nutrition is an important aspect for the success of the bee farming business. Honey bees need essential nutrients for survival and reproduction. Like many other animals, they need carbohydrates, which is the sugar in nectar or honey, amino acids which are obtained from protein from pollen, lipids fatty acids, sterols, vitamins, minerals as well as water. It is important that these nutrients are present in the right quantities for the honey bees to survive and thrive. You may need to supplement food to honey bees to prevent them from starving. Make sure that you do not feed bees with honey unless it is from your own disease-free hives. However, it is important to emphasize that feeding bees shouldn’t be the norm.  It is not uncommon to see an overuse of the feeder with new bee keepers. Feeding bees is only supplementary and should be treated as a way to address very specific cases.

Bees mainly obtain nutrients from pollen and honey. Bees do not need to be fed regularly, as long as flowers are available, bees will feed themselves. Supplementary feed is however sometimes necessary and can be in form of cane or beet sugar and isomerized corn syrup. Bees collect a number of substances to ensure survival and productivity:

The number of employees required depends on the size of the bee farming business. You will need beekeepers who will be responsible for the bee hive management, feeding the bees, monitoring the apiary, harvesting and packaging the honey. The honey beekeeping farming business plan should cater for the costs of paying all your employees.

Capital for Honey Beekeeping Business

The amount depends on the scale of the honey beekeeping operations. You can get a loan from the bank, or funding from investors, to use as capital to start your honey bee farming business. If you plan to raise capital from investors and a loan from the bank, you need a good beekeeping business plan. If you don’t have access to investors and bank loan, you can use your personal savings and start small, and grow your business overtime. Honey bee farming is profitable, so if you reinvest the profits you get, you can quickly grow. Even if you are not planning to get a loan, you should still get a honey bee farm business plan to guide you in starting and operating the business. It is essential for you to have a honey beekeeping farming business plan before you venture into the beekeeping business, so that you know all the costs involved and you make an informed decision.

honey bee farming business plan

The end product of the beekeeping business is honey. Bees form honey from the nectar which they collect from flowers. So at harvest time, beekeepers will harvest the honey from the beehives. Honey is an excellent, stable sweetener and energy source for humans. For this reason, it is often sold in its natural form. It is also an essential ingredient in the confectionary and cosmetology industry. Another valuable byproduct from beekeeping is beeswax. The wax from bees is used to make products such as bath soap, shoes polish and candles. The market for honey is huge, potential customers include individuals, supermarkets , wholesalers, restaurants and organisations. The honey beekeeping business plan should obviously include a proper marketing strategy for the business.

Pre-Written Honey Bee Farming Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel): Comprehensive Version, Short Funding/Bank Loan Version and Automated Financial Statements

For an in-depth analysis of the honey beekeeping farming business, we encourage you to purchase our well-researched and comprehensive honey beekeeping business plan. We introduced the business plans after discovering that many were venturing into the honey production business without enough knowledge and understanding of how to run the honey bee farming business, how to keep the bees, lack of understanding of the financial side of the business, lack of understanding of : the industry, the risks involved , costs and profitability of the business; which often leads to disastrous losses.

The StartupBiz Global honey beekeeping business plan will make it easier for you to launch and run your honey bee farming business successfully, fully knowing what you are going into, and what’s needed to succeed in the business. It will be easier to plan and budget as you will be aware of all the costs involved in setting up and running the beekeeping business.

Uses of the Honey Beekeeping Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)

The honey bee farm business plan can be used for many purposes including:

Contents of the Honey Bee Farming Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)

The honey beekeeping farming business plan include, but not limited to:

The Pre-written honey bee farming business plan package consist of 4 files

The business plan can be used in any country and can be easily edited. The financial statements are automated. This implies that you can change eg the number of bee hives, selling price of  the honey etc, and all the other financial statements will automatically adjust to reflect the change.

Click below to download the Contents Page of the Honey Bee Farming Business Plan (PDF)

honey beekeeping business plan pdf

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StartupBiz Global provided a very professional and comprehensive business plan which I used for my business. The business plan was easy to edit, and I was able to get the funding which I wanted. I highly recommend their business plans.

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I was able to understand the business side of farming because of your business plan. You did extensive research; the business plan was well prepared and fully detailed.  It made everything clear, and I have somewhere to start now. I am confident that I am going to succeed in my business because of the guidance from your business plan.

Get the Honey Beekeeping Business Plan (PDF, Word And Excel)

Click Buy Now  below to purchase using Paypal, Credit Card, or Debit Card. After you have purchased, you will immediately see the download link for the business plan package on the screen. You will also immediately get an email with the business plan download link. The Pre-written business plan package (PDF, Word, and Excel) costs $30 only!

Honey Bee Farming Business Plan

If you want to purchase multiple business plans at once then click here: Business Plans Store.

The business plan package is a zipped compressed file containing the PDF, Word and Excel documents. To open the package after downloading it, just right click, and select Extract All. If you have any problems in downloading and opening the files, email us on [email protected] and we will assist you.

We wish you the best in your honey bee farming business! Check out our collection of business plans  , and more business ideas .

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Profile image of Naff Kennedy

The apiculture business plan here is a detailed information on a natural beekeeping business plan for a community based organization. The plan also detailed the most products of beehive like, pollen, propolis, wax, royal Jelly and bee honey.

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Gluschenko-Nikodim V.P., Fursov V.N. Effective technology of Mother of God’s beekeeping, with high productivity of honeybee rearing. – Abstracts of 44-th International Beekeeping Congress “Apimondia”, Korea, 15-20. September, 2015. – 2015, p.263. (in English)

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Uganda has a very high potential for beekeeping given its floral diversity. This potential has not been fully exploited due to highly traditional production systems and limited apicultural research. This study, conducted in May 2014, was based on a survey of 60 beekeepers in areas adjacent to Kalinzu forest. The study employed a logistic regression model to assess the factors that influence the adoption of improved beehives. The study also analysed the local honey value chain to ascertain specific constraints affecting beekeeping in the study area. Results showed that education and training in beekeeping were the major factors influencing adoption of improved beehives. The honey value chain was dominated by beekeepers, middlemen and commercial processors. Pests, lack of equipment, low prices for bee products and farm sprays were the main factors affecting honey producers. Middlemen were constrained by high costs of transport, low quantities of honey collected and non-cash payments by buyers. Commercial processors were faced with honey adulteration, expensive equipment and unreliable honey supply. Commercialisation efforts should therefore focus on specialised trainings that overcome the constraints identified in the value chain.

Impact Assessment of Beekeeping in sustainable rural livelihood

Journal of Social Sciences COES&RJ-JSS

Beekeeping or apiculture is the preservation of honey bee colonies to get pure honey and helps in pollination. Beekeeping is a useful mean of strengthening livelihoods because it creates a variety of assets. The main focus of the study was to assess the impact of beekeeping training given by Society of facilitator and Trainer (SOFT) to females in Sargodha and Chakwal district. Capacity building of rural women in beekeeping was the focus and fifteen trainees’ beekeepers were selected randomly from each district for survey to assess the impact of beekeeping in their livelihood. The analysis suggests that there are some social and cultural barriers which restrict women to go out in the fields for the management practices of beekeeping. For future selection criteria of participants have to be focused and without the involvement of male member they can’t manage this whole activity in a better way. For young females it was very difficult to handle bees, proper colonies management, their supplement feeding, honey extraction, movement of hives etc. Economically, beekeeping increased keepers’ income but this ratio was very low in the targeted area. Training had to be gender based for sustaining livelihood. There are some problems identified by the beekeepers. Finally the authors have drawn some recommendations for future beekeeping trainings. In not shell there was no positive impact of beekeeping training of rural women.

Irene Onyango , Shadrack Muya , George Michuki , Samuel Kabochi , Muo Kasina , Erastus Mbugua

Honey bee population worldwide is dwindling due to a number of interrelated factors among them pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, fungi and metazoan parasites. These factors negatively affect agricultural production as well as the apiculture industry which is dependent on a seasonal abundance of honey bees year-round. As a result, food security and livelihood is compromised due to loss of pollinators. Majority of viruses infecting honey bees are positive-sense single-stranded RNA viruses of the order Picornavirales. The economically important viruses of bees in this order belong to family Dicistroviridae and Iflaviridae. Paenibacillus larvae and Melisococcus plutonius are bacteria known to cause bee brood diseases. This study aimed at identifying the viruses circulating in Kenyan honey bee colonies using next generation sequencing. Ribonucleic acid (RNA) was extracted from sixteen libraries and was used in cDNA synthesis using superscript II. The cDNA converted to dsDNA using Klenow reaction and used in amplification. 454 pyro sequencing was performed on genome sequencer FLX system. The resultant single reads were analyzed using CLC Genomic workbench. The reads were mapped on the full genomes of the identified viruses and then de novo assembled. The resultant contigs were interrogated using basic alignment search tool (BLAST) on national center for biotechnology information (NCBI) database. The contigs were exported to MEGA6 and used in phylogenetic analysis. The viruses identified belonged to family Iflaviridae and included deformed wing virus, Kakugo virus and Varroa destructor virus-1. Melissococcus plutonius and Enterococcus faecalis were also detected. Of the sixteen libraries sequenced, two libraries; Busia_adult and Siaya_brood reported the incidences of iflaviruses while five libraries had reads matching with M. plutonius and E. faecalis. There is need for a strategy in place for the management of bee diseases to enhance bee health and quality of hive products. Key words: Bee viruses, Paenibacillus larvae, Melissococcus plutonius, Iflavirus, Next generation sequencing R Skilton2, S Muya3, G Michuki2, S Kabochi1, H Kutima3 and M Kasina4

Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Andrzej K Kuropatnicki

koleoso abdulateef

The study adopted survey method with a target population of 4963 entrepreneur-farmers. The sample size of 370 was determined using Yamane (1967) formula (Eboh, 2009).Applying Bowley's proportional allocation statistical technique, the sample size for each category of respondents was estimated. The systematic linear random sampling technique was applied to select the 370 respondents. Primary and secondary sources of data were accessed. The primary data were collected through the researcher's self-designed questionnaire titled " Entrepreneur Self-Assessment Questionnaire(ESAQ) " .In the questionnaire, the five point Likert Scale was used to measure the agreeableness of the entrepreneurs on the subject, where Strongly Agree(SA),Agree(A),Neutral(N), Disagree(D),Strongly Disagree(SD) denote the values, 5,4,3,2,1 respectively. In-depth interviews were held with entrepreneur-farmers. Pilot survey was conducted. The instrument was validated by experts' opinions. Using Cronbach's Alpha technique, the reliability coefficient of 0.988 was determined, reflecting high degree of internal consistency of the research instrument. One hypothesis and a research question guided the study. At 0.05 level of significance and 15 degrees of freedom, the hypothesis was tested using one way ANOVA technique and Minitab software package. The study revealed that the extent of entrepreneur perception at 89.40 percent had significant positive effects on the growth of beekeeping in Abia State of Nigeria. Recommendations were made.

Claudia M Moreno

Apis mellifera or European honey bee is an insect of great economic and ecologic importance. Pollinator insects are quite important for plants and, among them, European honey bee is a well-known general pollinator which also helps to improve quantity and quality of crops production. In the last decades European honey bee has experienced a decrease in hives number in some countries and many studies have been and still are carried out to try to find the causes leading to this event. The aim of this paper is to review some of those studies to collect their main findings and their meaning in present situation of honey bees.

Shimelis Mengistu

A cross sectional study was carried out from November 2014 to March 2015 for problems associated with Major Honey Bee Health problem in Toke-kutaye, District, West showa Oromia Regional State, Ethiopia with Particular Emphasis to Anti-varroa Investigation of Propolis. Purposive sampling was used in each kebele and a total of 40 beekeepers out off 5 kebeles were selected and Sampling was split proportionally and varies with the number of hives available between each beekeeper apiary site. Direct observation, inspection and laboratory examination was the main data collection techniques. Executing petr-dish bio assay set up were the main data collection techniques used to gather the information of various concentrations of propolis extracted in 55% ethanol. Laboratory examination results revealed that all diagnosed kebeles had varroa mite with infestation rate ranging from 80% to 92.3% and the presence of Nosema 39% and amoeba 62.3% in honey bees in 82 colonies tested out of 5 studied kebeles. All inspected hive had pests like wax moth, 82(61%) and spider (Lactrodectus mactan), 82 (59%). Antivarroa investigation of propolis as through bio assay revealed that the length of narcosis and rate of mortality of varroa dependence on the concentration of propolis used, the duration of contact time and the origins of propolis. Thus, treatment with a 20%, propolis solution in 55%ethanol resulted in 100% mortality rate at a contact time of 5s regardless of the origins of the propolis. However, treatment with 5% of propolis (Eastern hararge) narcosis lasted from 37.8 ± 4.41% to 30 ± 5% at 5s and 10s contact times respectively and 100% mortal at 20s contact time. Further research in this field needs to be encouraged, it is therefore very important that the existing problems are well managed to maintain bee health and that the risks and consequences of pests and diseases are well understood and appropriate plans in place to deal with any such honey bee health problem. This will help to sustain the health of honey bee already established in the bee keeper's apiary in the district.

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European Scientific Journal ESJ

Prof Dr Orhan Yılmaz

IASET US , fauzia anjum , Wali Khan , EDITOR IASET

Alebachew Tilahun

Abebe Mitikie

Awraris Getachew Shenkute



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