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Locating an IP Address
You may hear the term IP address as it relates to online activity. Learn how to locate your IP address or someone else’s IP address when necessary.
What Is an IP Address?
IP stands for “internet protocol.” An IP address identifies your computer or your device by an internet number in much the same way your house or apartment has a number that identifies it on your street. Your IP address enables you to have a connection to the internet by following the set protocols and specifications set up for these connections.
A common type of IP address is known as an IPv4 address. This IP address has four three-digit numbers separated by dots. Without your IP address, you can’t connect to the internet, send information or retrieve information. A newer type of IP address is called the IPv6 address. This IP address has eight separate clusters of four hexadecimal digits, separated by colons.
Why Find an IP Address?
If you know someone’s IP address, you can discover some information. An IP address won’t show someone’s name, phone number or exact physical location, but it should reveal the general geographic area. The geographic location revealed by an IP address look-up may be very close to the user’s location, or it might be hundreds of miles away. An IP address will show the internet service provider used as well. Law enforcement typically looks up IP addresses to find ISP information. An online retailer will often use an IP look-up tool to make sure that consumers placing orders are located in the general vicinity of the mailing address associated with a credit card. An IP address can also verify someone’s general vicinity if fraud is a possibility.
How to Locate an IP Address on a Website
You have a couple of options for finding an IP address associated with a website. On a Windows operating system, open the command prompt and enter “ping” and the web address of the website. Click “enter” and your computer will search for the IP address to display it. Once you have the IP address, use an IP look-up tool to get more information. Navigate to a website such as “WhatismyIPaddress.com” and enter the IP address in the search field to see information about the general vicinity of the IP address.
What’s My IP Address?
If you’re curious about your own IP address, you can use the IP look-up tool to learn your own number. Again, navigating to a website such as “WhatismyIPaddress.com” will get you the information you want. Once on the website, the tool will detect your IP address and display the number.
Get an IP Address From an Email
If you get an email and you want to know the IP address of the sender, you can check the header to find out. Most email browsers have an option to display email headers. With an email message open, look for a setting option called “headers” or “internet headers.” Once you find it and turn it on, identifying information for the email message will display, including the sender’s IP address. Some people will modify email header information, so it’s smart to verify an IP address by using the command prompt ping process.
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- Cisco Wireless Gateway for LoRaWAN
Published On: August 6ᵗʰ, 2019 02:07
Cisco Wireless Gateway for LoRaWAN Software Configuration Guide
This chapter describes how to configure VLAN on the Cisco LoRaWAN Gateway. The LoRaWAN Gateway supports IEEE 802.1Q encapsulation. You can configure the fastethernet port as a trunk port that enables tagging of outgoing traffic from the Cisco LoRaWAN Gateway.
Configuring IP Address for VLAN
Configuring vlan trunks, enabling sending and receiving tagged packet on ethernet port, examples of show commands.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure IP address for the VLAN:
A trunk is a point-to-point link between one or more Ethernet interfaces and another networking device such as a router or a switch. Ethernet trunks carry the traffic of multiple VLANs over a single link, and you can extend the VLANs across an entire network.
You can configure the FastEthernet port as a trunk port that enables tagging of outgoing traffic from the Cisco LoRaWAN Gateway.
Configuring a Trunk Port
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to configure a trunk port:
What to do next
To reset all trunking characteristics of a trunking interface to the defaults, use the no switchport trunk interface configuration command.
Defining the Allowed VLANs on a Trunk
By default, a trunk port sends traffic to and receives traffic from all VLANs. All VLAN IDs, 1 to 4094, are allowed on each trunk. However, you can remove VLANs from the allowed list, preventing traffic from those VLANs from passing over the trunk.
Beginning in privileged EXEC mode, follow these steps to modify the allowed list of a trunk:
To return to the default allowed VLAN list of all VLANs, use the no switchport trunk allowed vlan interface configuration command.
To enable sending and receiving of tagged packets on the Ethernet port, the following needs to be configured on the Cisco LoRaWAN Gateway:
The port will also expect incoming packets (with its own ip address or broadcast address) to be tagged with the same vlan tag. In order for the peer switch or router to send tagged packets to the Cisco LoRaWAN Gateway, they need to be configured as trunk ports as well.
Here is a configuration example on a Cisco Me3400 switch:
On a Catalyst 3750 it would be:
If you need to use Vlan 1, remember that Cisco switches treat Vlan 1 as the native vlan on trunk ports by default. That is, incoming “untagged” packets will be treated as they belong to Vlan 1. And similarly when Vlan 1 packets untagged are sent. These packets will not be picked up on the Cisco LoRaWAN Gateway Vlan interface. To avoid this, a different native vlan must be chosen on the peer switch. See the following example:
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Workaround for VLAN Management IP Address Assignment
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When the switch is configured with an IP address on any VLAN, the ‘fallback’ IP address on VLAN1 (192.168.1.254) will be released.To preserve connectivity, prior to assigning an IP address to any VLAN interface, ensure the management VLAN has an IP address assigned first . The IP address can be obtained via a DHCP server or statically assigned to the VLAN interface. This article provides you with a workaround for VLAN IP assignment.
250 series Switches
Enabling ssh and confirming switch status.
If this is not your first time booting up the Switch, skip to Step 3.
Step 1. Power up the new switch and log in to the switch via the web browser by using the default username and password.
Note: The default username and password upon first boot is cisco / cisco.
Step 2. Change the default username and password. Click Apply .
Step 3. Once the main menu has opened, click Security > TCP/UDP Services . Once this page loads enable SSH on the switch. Click Apply .
Step 4. Log in to the switch via SSH, we chose to use Putty.
Note: To learn how to access an SMB switch through SSH or Telnet, click here .
Step 5. To display details of the firmware and to confirm whether the Switch is updated to the latest available firmware version or not, enter the following command.
Note: It is recommended to use the latest firmware on the Switch. To download the latest firmware, please click here.
Step 6. To display information about VLAN settings of the switch, enter the following command:
Step 7. To display information about IP interface, enter the following:
By using the above mentioned command, you can see the current IP address settings on the interfaces and decide about assigning a new IP on the new VLAN interface.
Example: Creating the VLAN and Assigning the IP address
Note: The below is an example of the steps SSH session loss. When you enter the last command, you will lose access to the switch because VLAN1 will not have an IP address and all switch ports are still assigned to VLAN1.
To skip directly to the workaround steps, click here .
Step 8. From the Privileged EXEC mode of the switch, enter the Global Configuration mode by entering the following command:
Step 9. To configure the VLAN 2 on the Switch, enter the following:
switch201bd3 (config) # vlan 2
Step 10. To manage the VLAN 2 interface, enter the following:
switch201bd3 (config) # interface vlan 2
Step 11. To configure the IP on VLAN 2 interface, enter the following:
switch201bd3 (config-if) # ip address 192.168.2.254 255.255.255.0
Workaround: Preventing loss of SSH session
By assigning a static IP address to the VLAN 1 interface, you preserve the SSH connection when assigning IP addresses to VLANs 2, 3, 4 etc.
To avoid losing the connection from VLAN 1 while assigning the IP on a different VLAN interface you can perform the following:
Step 1. Enter the below commands in sequence to set the static IP address on VLAN 1.
Note: from this point you are able to assign IP addresses at will.
Step 2. Apply the below mentioned command to create a VLAN 2 and assign an IP on that.
Note: In the example above, if you were connected to the switch via gi2 then you would lose the connection.
Step 3. (Optional) You can now verify the VLAN & IP address of the switch by using the following commands.
You have now successfully assigned an IP on another VLAN interface without losing connection to VLAN1. It will be helpful to assign a static IP on the VLAN 1 interface of the Switch for management purpose.
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Configure an IP address on a switch
By default, Cisco switches forward Ethernet frames without any configuration. This means that you can buy a Cisco switch, plug in the right cables to connect various devices to the switch, power it on, and the switch will work properly.
However, to perform switch management over the network or use protocols such as SNMP, the switch will need to have an IP address. The IP address is configured under a logical interface, known as the management domain or VLAN. Usually, the default VLAN 1 acts like the switch’s own NIC for connecting into a LAN to send IP packets. Here are the steps to configure an IP address under VLAN 1:
- enter the VLAN 1 configuration mode with the interface vlan 1 global configuration command.
- assign an IP address with the ip address IP_ADDRESS SUBNET_MASK interface subcommand.
- enable the VLAN 1 interface with the no shutdown interface subcommand.
- (Optional) use the ip default-gateway IP_ADDRESS global configuration command to configure the default gateway.
- (Optional) Add the ip name-server IP_ADDRESS global configuration command to configure the DNS server.
Here is a simple example network:
We have a simple network of a host and a switch. We can assign the switch with an IP address to enable IP communication between the two devices:
To verify the IP address set on a switch, we can use the show int vlan 1 command:
We can verify that the host can reach the switch using its IP address by pinging it from Host A:
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IP configuration features:
IP address and subnet mask. Configuring the switch with an IP address expands your ability to manage the switch and use its features. By default, the switch is configured to automatically receive IP addressing on the default VLAN from a DHCP/Bootp server that has been configured correctly with information to support the switch. (See DHCP/Bootp operation for information on setting up automatic configuration from a server.) However, if you are not using a DHCP/Bootp server to configure IP addressing, use the menu interface or the CLI to manually configure the initial IP values. After you have network access to a device, you can use the WebAgent to modify the initial IP configuration if needed.
For information on how IP addressing affects switch operation, See How IP addressing affects switch operation .
Multinetting: assigning multiple IP addresses to a VLAN. For a given VLAN you can assign up to 32 IP addresses. This allows you to combine two or more subnets on the same VLAN, which enables devices in the combined subnets to communicate normally through the network without needing to reconfigure the IP addressing in any of the combined subnets.
Default gateway operation. The default gateway is required when a router is needed for tasks such as reaching off-subnet destinations or forwarding traffic across multiple VLANs. The gateway value is the IP address of the next-hop gateway node for the switch, which is used if the requested destination address is not on a local subnet/VLAN. If the switch does not have a manually-configured default gateway and DHCP/Bootp is configured on the primary VLAN, then the default gateway value provided by the DHCP or Bootp server will be used. If the switch has a manually configured default gateway, then the switch uses his gateway, even if a different gateway is received via DHCP or Bootp on the primary VLAN. This is also true for manually configured TimeP, SNTP, and Time-To-Live(TTL). (In the default configuration, VLAN 1 is the Primary VLAN.)
For more information on Primary VLANs, see the Advanced Traffic Management Guide .
For more information on TimeP and SNTP, see the “Time Protocols” chapter in the Management and Configuration Guide .
Packet Time-To-Live (TTL). This parameter specifies the maximum number of routers (hops) through which a packet can pass before being discarded. Each router decreases a packet’s TTL by 1 before forwarding the packet. If decreasing the TTL causes the TTL to be 0, the router drops the packet instead of forwarding it. In most cases, the default setting (64) is adequate.
Just want a quick start with IP addressing?
If you just want to give the switch an IP address so that it can communicate on your network, or if you are not using VLANs, HP recommends that you use the Switch Setup screen to quickly configure IP addressing. To do so, do one of the following:
Enter setup at the CLI Manager level prompt.
HP Switch# setup
Select 8. Run Setup in the Main Menu of the menu interface.
For more on using the Switch Setup screen, See the Installation and Getting Started Guide you received with the switch.
IP addressing with multiple VLANs
In the factory-default configuration, the switch has one, permanent default VLAN (named DEFAULT_VLAN) that includes all ports on the switch. Thus, when only the default VLAN exists in the switch, if you assign an IP address and subnet mask to the switch, you are actually assigning the IP addressing to the DEFAULT_VLAN.
Menu: configuring IP address, Gateway, and Time-To-Live (TTL)
Do one of the following:
To manually enter an IP address, subnet mask, set the IP Config parameter to Manual and then manually enter the IP address and subnet mask values you want for the switch.
To use DHCP or Bootp, use the menu interface to ensure that the IP Config parameter is set to DHCP/Bootp , then see DHCP/Bootp operation .
To configure IP addressing.
From the Main Menu, select:
Press [E] (for E dit ).
If the switch needs to access a router, for example, to reach off-subnet destinations, select the Default Gateway field and enter the IP address of the gateway router.
If you need to change the packet Time-To-Live (TTL) setting, select Default TTL and type in a value between 2 and 255.
To configure IP addressing, select IP Config and do one of the following:
If you want to have the switch retrieve its IP configuration from a DHCP or Bootp server, at the IP Config field, keep the value as DHCP/ Bootp and go to step 8.
If you want to manually configure the IP information, use the Space bar to select Manual and use the [Tab] key to move to the other IP configuration fields.
Select the IP Address field and enter the IP address for the switch.
Select the Subnet Mask field and enter the subnet mask for the IP address.
Press [Enter] , then [S] (for S ave ).
CLI: Configuring IP Address, Gateway, and Time-To-Live (TTL)
Viewing the current IP configuration.
This command displays the IP addressing for each VLAN configured in the switch. If only the DEFAULT_VLAN exists, then its IP configuration applies to all ports in the switch. Where multiple VLANs are configured, the IP addressing is listed per VLAN. The display includes switch-wide packet time-to-live, and (if configured) the switch’s default gateway and Timep configuration.
(You can also use the show management command to display the IP addressing and time server IP addressing configured on the switch. See the Management and Configuration Guide for your switch.)
For example, in the factory-default configuration (no IP addressing assigned), the switch’s IP addressing appears as:
The switch’s default IP addressing
With multiple VLANs and some other features configured, show ip provides additional information:
Show IP listing with non-default IP addressing configured
Configure an IP address and subnet mask. The following command includes both the IP address and the subnet mask. You must either include the ID of the VLAN for which you are configuring IP addressing or go to the context configuration level for that VLAN. (If you are not using VLANs on the switch—that is, if the only VLAN is the default VLAN—then the VLAN ID is always "1".)
[no] vlan <vlan-id> ip address <ip-address/mask-length>
[no] vlan <vlan-id> ip address <ip-address> <mask-bits>
vlan <vlan-id> ip address dhcp-bootp
This example configures IP addressing on the default VLAN with the subnet mask specified in mask bits.
This example configures the same IP addressing as the preceding example, but specifies the subnet mask by mask length.
This example deletes an IP address configured in VLAN 1.
Configure multiple IP addresses on a VLAN (multinetting). The following is supported:
Up to 2000 IP addresses for the switch
Up to 32 IP addresses for the same VLAN
Up to 512 IP VLANs, that is, VLANs on which you can configure IP addresses
Each IP address on a VLAN must be for a separate subnet, whether on the same VLAN or different VLANs.
For example, if you wanted to multinet VLAN_20 (VID = 20) with the IP addresses shown below, you would perform steps similar to the following. (For this example, assume that the first IP address is already configured.)
Configuring and displaying a multinetted VLAN
If you then wanted to multinet the default VLAN, you would do the following:
Multinetting on the default VLAN
Removing or replacing IP addresses in a multinetted VLAN. To remove an IP address from a multinetted VLAN, use the no form of the IP address command shown on page “Syntax” . Generally, to replace one IP address with another, you should first remove the address you want to replace, and then enter the new address.
Configure the optional default gateway. Using the Global configuration level, you can manually assign one default gateway to the switch. (The switch does not allow IP addressing received from a DHCP or Bootp server to replace a manually configured default gateway.)
ip default-gateway <ip-address>
Configure Time-To-Live (TTL). The maximum number of routers (hops) through which a packet can pass before being discarded. (The default is 64.) Each router decreases a packet’s TTL by 1 before forwarding the packet. If a router decreases the TTL to 0, the router drops the packet instead of forwarding it.
ip ttl <number-of-hops>
In the CLI, you can execute this command only from the global configuration level. The TTL default is 64, and the range is 2 - 255.
WebAgent: configuring IP addressing
You can use the WebAgent to access IP addressing only if the switch already has an IP address that is reachable through your network.
In the navigation pane, click Home .
Click Quick Setup .
In the Switch Quick Setup Parameters box, click Change .
Enter the IP address and any other information such as the Subnet mask and Gateway.
Click Save to save your changes.
If you need further information on using the WebAgent, click [?] to access the web-based help available for the switch.
How IP addressing affects switch operation
Without an IP address and subnet mask compatible with your network, the switch can be managed only through a direct terminal device connection to the Console RS-232 port. You can use direct-connect console access to take advantage of features that do not depend on IP addressing. However, to realize the full capabilities HP proactive networking offers through the switch, configure the switch with an IP address and subnet mask compatible with your network. The following table lists the general features available with and without a network-compatible IP address configured.
Features available with and without IP addressing on the switch
Overview. DHCP/Bootp is used to provide configuration data from a DHCP or Bootp server to the switch. This data can be the IP address, subnet mask, default gateway, Timep Server address, and TFTP server address. If a TFTP server address is provided, this allows the switch to TFTP a previously saved configuration file from the TFTP server to the switch. With either DHCP or Bootp, the servers must be configured prior to the switch being connected to the network.
The DHCP/Bootp process. Whenever the IP Config parameter in differencesthe switch or in an individual VLAN in the switch is configured to DHCP/Bootp (the default), or when the switch is rebooted with this configuration:
DHCP/Bootp requests are automatically broadcast on the local network. (The switch sends one type of request to which either a DHCP or Bootp server can respond.)
When a DHCP or Bootp server receives the request, it replies with a previously configured IP address and subnet mask for the switch. The switch also receives an IP Gateway address if the server has been configured to provide one. In the case of Bootp, the server must first be configured with an entry that has the switch’s MAC address. (To determine the switch’s MAC address, See Appendix D, “MAC Address Management”.) The switch properly handles replies from either type of server. If multiple replies are returned, the switch tries to use the first reply.)
If the switch is initially configured for DHCP/Bootp operation (the default), or if it reboots with this configuration, it begins sending request packets on the network. If the switch does not receive a reply to its DHCP/Bootp requests, it continues to periodically send request packets, but with decreasing frequency. Thus, if a DHCP or Bootp server is not available or accessible to the switch when DHCP/Bootp is first configured, the switch may not immediately receive the desired configuration. After verifying that the server has become accessible to the switch, reboot the switch to re-start the process immediately.
DHCP operation. A significant difference between a DHCP configuration and a Bootp configuration is that an IP address assignment from a DHCP server is automatic. Depending on how the DHCP server is configured, the switch may receive an IP address that is temporarily leased. Periodically the switch may be required to renew its lease of the IP configuration. Thus, the IP addressing provided by the server may be different each time the switch reboots or renews its configuration from the server. However, you can fix the address assignment for the switch by doing either of the following:
Configure the server to issue an “infinite” lease.
Using the switch’s MAC address as an identifier, configure the server with a “Reservation” so that it will always assign the same IP address to the switch. (For MAC address information, See Appendix D, “MAC Address Management”.)
For more information on either of these procedures, See the documentation provided with the DHCP server.
Bootp operation. When a Bootp server receives a request it searches its Bootp database for a record entry that matches the MAC address in the Bootp request from the switch. If a match is found, the configuration data in the associated database record is returned to the switch. For many Unix systems, the Bootp database is contained in the /etc/bootptab file. In contrast to DHCP operation, Bootp configurations are always the same for a specific receiving device. That is, the Bootp server replies to a request with a configuration previously stored in the server and designated for the requesting device.
Bootp Database Record Entries. A minimal entry in the Bootp table file /etc/bootptab to update an IP address and subnet mask to the switch or a VLAN configured in the switch would be similar to this entry:
8212switch:\ ht=ether:\ ha=0030c1123456:\ ip=10.66.77.88:\ sm=255.255.248.0:\ gw=10.66.77.1:\ hn:\ vm=rfc1048
An entry in the Bootp table file /etc/bootptab to tell the switch or VLAN where to obtain a configuration file download would be similar to this entry:
8212switch:\ ht=ether:\ ha=0030c1123456:\ ip=10.66.77.88:\ sm=255.255.248.0:\ gw=10.66.77.1:\ lg=10.22.33.44:\ T144="switch.cfg":\ vm=rfc1048
Network preparations for configuring DHCP/Bootp
In its default configuration, the switch is configured for DHCP/Bootp operation. However, the DHCP/Bootp feature will not acquire IP addressing for the switch unless the following tasks have already been completed:
For Bootp operation
A Bootp database record has already been entered into an appropriate Bootp server
The necessary network connections are in place
The Bootp server is accessible from the switch
For DHCP operation
A DHCP scope has been configured on the appropriate DHCP server
A DHCP server is accessible from the switch
After you reconfigure or reboot the switch with DHCP/Bootp enabled in a network providing DHCP/Bootp service, the switch does the following:
Receives an IP address and subnet mask and, if configured in the server, a gateway IP address and the address of a Timep server.
If the DHCP/Bootp reply provides information for downloading a configuration file, the switch uses TFTP to download the file from the designated source, then reboots itself. (This assumes that the switch or VLAN has connectivity to the TFTP file server specified in the reply, that the configuration file is correctly named, and that the configuration file exists in the TFTP directory.)
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CLI Command Modes
Support and Accessibility
Administering the Switch
Log In to the Oracle ILOM CLI
Create a SEFOS User
Change a SEFOS User Privilege Level
Configure Network Management From the Web Interface
Configure Network Management From the CLI
Log Out of the Oracle ILOM CLI
Update the Firmware
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Understanding SEFOS Basics
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This task describes how to configure the IP address for sending and receiving the packets.
See Connect to SEFOS .
- Enter Global Configuration mode. SEFOS-1# configure terminal
- Enter Interface Configuration mode. SEFOS-1(config)# interface vlan 1
Note - You must shut down the interface before you can configure the IP address for that interface.
- Configure the IP address and subnet mask. SEFOS-1(config-if)# ip address 22.214.171.124 255.0.0.0
- Bring up the VLAN interface. SEFOS-1(config-if)# no shutdown
- Exit from Interface Configuration mode. SEFOS-1(config)# end
- View the configured interface IP address. SEFOS-1# show ip interface vlan1 is up, line protocol is up Internet Address is 126.96.36.199/8 Broadcast Address 188.8.131.52
Basic Switch Configuration
Configure a switch with initial settings.
Step 1. Configure Management Interface
An IP address and subnet mask is configured on the management SVI of the switch from VLAN interface configuration mode. As shown in Figure 1, the interface vlan 99 command is used to enter interface configuration mode. The ip address command is used to configure the IP address. The no shutdown command enables the interface. In this example, VLAN 99 is configured with IP address 172.17.99.11.
The SVI for VLAN 99 will not appear as "up/up" until VLAN 99 is created and there is a device connected to a switch port associated with VLAN 99. To create a VLAN with the vlan_id of 99, and associate it to an interface, use the following commands:
S1(config)# vlan vlan_id
S1(config-vlan)# name vlan_name
S1(config)# interface interface_id
S1(config-if)# switchport access vlan vlan_id
Step 2. Configure Default Gateway
The switch should be configured with a default gateway if it will be managed remotely from networks not directly connected. The default gateway is the router the switch is connected to. The switch will forward its IP packets with destination IP addresses outside the local network to the default gateway. As shown in Figure 2, R1 is the default gateway for S1. The interface on R1 connected to the switch has IP address 172.17.99.1. This address is the default gateway address for S1.
To configure the default gateway for the switch, use the ip default-gateway command. Enter the IP address of the default gateway. The default gateway is the IP address of the router interface to which the switch is connected. Use the copy running-config startup-config command to back up your configuration.
Step 3. Verify Configuration
As shown in Figure 3, the show ip interface brief command is useful when determining the status of both physical and virtual interfaces. The output shown confirms that interface VLAN 99 has been configured with an IP address and subnet mask and that it is operational.
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How to configure VLAN on Cisco
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Technology: Enterprise Switching Area: VLAN Vendor: Cisco Software: 12.X , 15.X Platform: Catalyst Switches
A VLAN is a group of end stations in a switched network that is logically segmented by function, team, or application, regardless of the physical locations of the users. VLANs have the same attributes as physical LANs, but you can group end stations even if they are not physically connected to the same switch.
VLANs are numbered from 1 to 4094 (extended range). All configured ports belong to the default VLAN when you first bring up the switch. The default VLAN (VLAN1) uses only default values, and you cannot create, delete, or suspend activity in the default VLAN.
You can create a VLAN by assigning a number to it; you can delete VLANs as well as move them from the active operational state to the suspended operational state. If you attempt to create a VLAN with an existing VLAN ID, the switch goes into the VLAN sub-mode but does not create the same VLAN again.
To create a VLAN:
switch# configure terminal switch(config)# vlan 15 switch(config-vlan)# name accounting
The name in the above configuration is optional but helps the administrator to keep the config clean
To assign an Ethernet interface to a VLAN 15:
switch# configure terminal switch(config)# interface FastEthernet 0/1 switch(config-if)# switchport access vlan 15
To verify VLANs you just created, issue:
switch# show vlan
Campus Network Design & Operations Workshop
The purpose of this exercise is to create separate VLANs for different groups of users in each building. In a later exercise we will configure the core router so that each VLAN is using a different IP subnet.
This lab is a continuation from the Spanning Tree exercise and the lab setup is identical:
Accessing the Lab
Here is a reminder of how to access the lab. Refer to the correct document below for information about logging into the devices that have been assigned to you:
VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENT: Virtual Environment Lab Access Instructions
PHYSICAL HARDWARE: Physical Hardware Lab Access Instructions
We now want to segment the network to separate network management traffic from end-user traffic (staff and students). Running one large flat network across the entire campus simply does not scale as was covered during the presentation. Each of these segments will be a separate subnet.
We need to take a structured approach with this migration. While we have the luxury of working in a lab for this workshop, on a campus network migration from a flat to a routed backbone needs care and planning.
The process will be this:
Create a VLAN for the Staff (called STAFF)
Create a VLAN for the Students (called STUDENT)
Create a VLAN for device management (called MGMT)
Shutting down VLAN1 - VLAN1 is the Cisco default, has many well documented security risks for campus networks, and should never be used.
VLANs and Address Plan
We will now create the VLANs described in the previous steps. As each VLAN is a different network, they need their own address subnet (IPv4 and IPv6). The Campus Core switch will route between each VLAN (so called L3-switch: an ethernet switch which has some L3 routing capability).
These IP addresses are also documented in the master IP address plan .
VTP (VLAN Trunking Protocol) is a proprietary Cisco technology that allows for dynamic VLAN provisioning. We will not use it here.
Disable VTP by setting it to "transparent mode":
Configure trunk ports
The Core switch connects to the Distribution switches in each building, which in turn connect to two Edge switches in each building. So that we can pass VLAN tags from switch to switch, we need to convert the interfaces which connect between the switches two trunk ports. (The Cisco default is for the interfaces to pass ethernet frames untagged.)
Referring to the network diagram above, configure the following for each port that needs to tag VLAN frames. For example, on Distribution switch in Building1 in Campus1:
Note : The Cisco default is to use dot1q encapsulation (rather than the Cisco proprietary ISL). But we include the dot1q command in the configuration in any case.
Reminder : Check the diagram to see which ports you need to modify - don’t just guess!
And don’t forget to put the descriptions on the interfaces!
Configure the switches with MGMT, STAFF and STUDENT VLANs.
Add the VLANs to the VLAN database on each switch and give them names to better identify them. If you don’t do this, the switches won’t know which VLANs are present in the network.
On the Core Switch:
On Building 1 switches:
On Building 2 switches:
Configuring STP for each VLAN
Verify the Spanning Tree status:
Notice the root and bridge priorities on each VLAN (1,10,11,12) and (1,20,21,22). Are they the same?
Copy the bridge priority which you previously set on VLAN 1 to the new VLANs you have created. (This was from the table in Appendix A in the Spanning Tree exercise)
Note : This is called "Per-VLAN spanning tree", or PVST. This means that the switches are creating 4 separate trees, each with its own parameters, status, calculations, etc. Imagine if you had several hundred VLANs! This is certainly not ideal. There are better standards, like "Multiple Spanning Tree" (MST), that allow the administrator to create only the desired number of trees, and map groups of VLANs to each tree. Unfortunately, this Cisco device does not support MST.
For example, for the distribution switch in Building 1:
Once the priorities have been set, check the output of the spanning tree status command. Which is the root bridge for each VLAN?
IP Addressing for the MGMT VLAN
We originally configured the switches so that we were using VLAN 1 to manage them (and provide end user access for the whole campus!). And the IPv4 address block we have used up to now was the entire 172.2X.0.0/16 (for IPv6 we only used 2001:DB8:X:0::/64) as we had one large broadcast domain for the whole campus.
We need to move away from this now.
We cannot simply address the VLANs we created using a subnet of 172.2X.0.0/16 while that entire address block is being used for VLAN 1 - Cisco IOS does not allow overlapping subnets to be configured on routing devices (the core1.campusX switch will be routing traffic between the VLANs).
For this exercise we will simply remove the management IP addresses from VLAN 1 and set up new subnets on VLAN10 (MGMT for Building 1) and VLAN 20 (MGMT for Building 2).
( Note: If doing this on a live network, removing the IP addressing and shutting down VLAN 1 will remove all Internet connectivity for all users connected to the switches - so this activity is best done when the network is unused, usually early in the mornings or at weekend, depending on when the campus is quietest.)
Remember that while we can delete an IPv4 address simply by doing no ip address , we have to type in the entire IPv6 address to delete it (because IPv6 allows multiple addresses per interfaces, unlike IPv4).
These two tables show the IP addresses which are assigned to the management interfaces of the core, distribution and edge switches. Replace the X and N in the examples below with the appropriate numbers from these tables:
In Building 1:
In Building 2:
Notice the sequence!!
NB: It is very important to remove all IP addresses (both IPv4 and IPv6) from VLAN 1 and shut VLAN 1 down before anything is configured on the new management VLANs (VLAN 10 or VLAN 20).
Note : If you see entries like this:
in the configuration, then the above sequence for moving the management VLAN from VLAN 1 has not been followed properly. If you have entries like these in your configuration, trying shutting down the VLAN interface mentioned (VLAN 20 in the above exampled), deleting the line by putting a "no" in front of the offending configuration, and then bringing the VLAN interface back up again. If that doesn't work (the mac-address-table line is still there), ask your lab instructor for help.
Verify connectivity between switches. Can you ping?
Note : changing Management VLANs is quite tricky to achieve by remotely accessing the switch - it is normally done by accessing the switch’s console port (like we are doing here in the lab). Cisco IOS requires VLAN 1 to be shutdown before any packets are moved on VLAN 10 or VLAN 20, so we can’t even use the trick of accessing the switch over IPv6 while the IPv4 address is being moved.
Configure IP addresses for the STAFF and STUDENT VLANs.
We now configure the IP addresses of the STAFF and STUDENT VLANs on the Core Switch . Here is an example for VLAN 11, the STAFF VLAN in Building 1:
Replace X with your campus number. Do the same for all the other VLANs as well.
Once completed, your Core switch should have VLANs 11, 12, 21 and 22 configured with both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses.
Question : What is significant about the IP address configured on each VLAN?
Answer : This IP address now serves as the default gateway for every device connecting to this VLAN. So a user on VLAN 11 will have default gateway 172.2X.11.1, etc.
NB: This configuration only goes on the core switch, not the distribution and access switches.
Designating Edge Switch Ports
Now that the STAFF and STUDENT VLANs have been created, and an IPv4 and IPv6 address has been assigned to each one, we can now move the end users to these VLANs.
Now designate 7 edge ports each for STAFF and STUDENT VLAN access on the edge switches only (example is for Building 1):
Verify which ports are members or trunks of each vlan:
Imagine that there are computers connected to the STAFF vlan. Would they be able to ping the switch? Explain your response.
Now run the command:
What do you see?
This is why it is important to make sure all interfaces have a description line configured - the above diagnostic command lets any operator see at one easy glance which switch interfaces are used for which function.
Trying pinging from switch to switch within your building. Ping the management interface addresses.
Now try pinging the STAFF and STUDENT subnet addresses configured on the Core Switch too. What do you see?
Can you ping any of the switches in the other building in your campus? What happens?
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You can create a VLAN by assigning a number to it; you can delete VLANs as well as move them from the active operational state to the suspended operational
Replace X with your campus number. Do the same for all the other VLANs as well. Once completed, your