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How to Publish a Research Paper

Last Updated: September 30, 2022 References Approved

This article was co-authored by Matthew Snipp, PhD and by wikiHow staff writer, Christopher M. Osborne, PhD . C. Matthew Snipp is the Burnet C. and Mildred Finley Wohlford Professor of Humanities and Sciences in the Department of Sociology at Stanford University. He is also the Director for the Institute for Research in the Social Science’s Secure Data Center. He has been a Research Fellow at the U.S. Bureau of the Census and a Fellow at the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences. He has published 3 books and over 70 articles and book chapters on demography, economic development, poverty and unemployment. He is also currently serving on the National Institute of Child Health and Development’s Population Science Subcommittee. He holds a Ph.D. in Sociology from the University of Wisconsin—Madison. There are 8 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 30 testimonials and 92% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 660,646 times.

Publishing a research paper in a peer-reviewed journal is an important activity within the academic community. It allows you to network with other scholars, get your name and work into circulation, and further refine your ideas and research. Getting published isn’t easy, but you can improve your odds by submitting a technically sound and creative yet straightforward piece of research. It’s also vital to find a suitable academic journal for your topic and writing style, so you can tailor your research paper to it and increase your chances of publication and wider recognition.

Submitting (and Resubmitting) Your Paper

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Matthew Snipp, PhD

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Choosing the Right Journal for Submission

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Strengthening Your Submission

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About This Article

Matthew Snipp, PhD

To publish a research paper, ask a colleague or professor to review your paper and give you feedback. Once you've revised your work, familiarize yourself with different academic journals so that you can choose the publication that best suits your paper. Make sure to look at the "Author's Guide" so you can format your paper according to the guidelines for that publication. Then, submit your paper and don't get discouraged if it is not accepted right away. You may need to revise your paper and try again. To learn about the different responses you might get from journals, see our reviewer's explanation below. Did this summary help you? Yes No

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how do we publish research papers

How to Submit a Paper for Publication in a Journal

Table of Contents

Whether you’ve done it before, or not, submitting a paper for publication in a journal is, to say the least, a process that brings great anxiety and stress. After all your hard work for many months, or even years, recognition is finally at your grasp. That is why there no room for mistakes.

What to Expect of the Scientific Publishing Process

If you are a beginner, you might be struggling to know exactly what to do. After all, it is a step-by-step process, sometimes with a lot of players and paperwork involved; it’s not always evident what to do next. An excellent, high-quality manuscript is the best way to give a good impression from the beginning, putting your paper on the right track for a successful submission. At Elsevier, with our Language Editing services , we not only revise your manuscript, but guarantee there are no text errors.

If, on the other hand, you have already published articles, you might have enough experience to know that each paper submission in a journal is different. Either the journal is different, or the context has changed, or the peers are new. You never know what can go right or wrong, other than the variable that lies under your control – that the manuscript is error-free and spot-on for successful acceptance. In this case, you might consider Elsevier’s professional Language Editing services to amend your text to the target journal’s requirements, helping you focus on other projects.

Scientific Paper Submission. Are you ready? Let’s go!

For many researchers, putting their paper through the professional journal submission process is stressful. Here is a simple to-do list which might help you go through all of it with some peace of mind:

Now, what happens if your paper gets rejected by the journal ? It is, by no means, the end of the world. There are very real steps you can take to ultimately get published in a reputable journal.

The Science of Article Publishing

Article publishing is every researcher’s aim. It brings visibility and recognition, essential factors for those who intend to build a full career in research. However, most scientists feel handicapped or lost when it comes to conveying their findings or ideas to others. For many, it can be difficult to re-format a certain type of text to another, be aware of formatting requirements and translate their work into visually appealing outcomes. Additionally, keeping track of all the steps needed to submit an article for publication can be overwhelming and take too much time that could be spent doing new research.

At Elsevier, we believe everyone should be doing what they do best: in this case, leave research for scientists and leave the science of turning the best ideas into excellent quality text to our professionals.

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How to publish your research

A step-by-step guide to getting published.

Publishing your research is an important step in your academic career. While there isn’t a one-size-fits-all approach, this guide is designed to take you through the typical steps in publishing a research paper.

Discover how to get your paper published, from choosing the right journal and understanding what a peer reviewed article is, to responding to reviewers and navigating the production process.

Jump to section

Step 1: choosing a journal.

Choosing which journal to publish your research paper in  is one of the most significant decisions you have to make as a researcher. Where you decide to submit your work can make a big difference to the reach and impact your research has.

It’s important to take your time to consider your options carefully and analyze each aspect of journal submission – from shortlisting titles to your preferred method of publication, for example  open access. 

Don’t forget to think about publishing options beyond the traditional journals format – for example, open research platform  F1000Research , which offers rapid, open publication for a wide range of outputs.

Vector illustration depicting two characters choosing a journal from a screen which is in the middle of them.

Why choose your target journal before you start writing?

The first step in publishing a research paper should always be selecting the journal you want to publish in. Choosing your target journal before you start writing means you can tailor your work to build on research that’s already been published in that journal. This can help editors to see how a paper adds to the ‘conversation’ in their journal.

Vector illustration of a character wearing blue, facing away, holding a giant magnifying glass.

In addition, many journals only accept specific manuscript formats of article. So, by choosing a journal before you start, you can write your article to their specifications and audience, and ultimately improve your chances of acceptance.

To save time and for peace of mind, you can consider using  manuscript formatting experts  while you focus on your research.

How to select the journal to publish your research in

Choosing which journal to publish your research in can seem like an overwhelming task. So, for all the details of how to navigate this important step in publishing your research paper, take a look at  our choosing a journal guide . This will take you through the selection process, from understanding the aims and scope of the journals you’re interested in to making sure you choose a trustworthy journal.

Don’t forget to explore  our journal suggester  to see which Taylor & Francis journals could be right for your research.

how do we publish research papers

Go to guidance on choosing a journal

Step 2: writing your paper.

Writing an effective, compelling research paper  is vital to getting your research published. But if you’re new to putting together academic papers, it can feel daunting to start from scratch.

The good news is that if you’ve chosen the journal you want to publish in, you’ll have lots of examples already published in that journal to base your own paper on. We’ve gathered advice on every aspect of writing your paper, to make sure you get off to a great start.

How to write your paper

How you write your paper will depend on your chosen journal, your subject area, and the type of paper you’re writing. Everything from the style and structure you choose to the audience you should have in mind while writing will differ, so it’s important to think about these things before you get stuck in.

Our  writing your paper guide  will take you through everything you need to know to put together your research article and prepare it for submission. This includes getting to know your target journal, understanding your audiences, how to choose appropriate keywords, as a  guide through your research publication journey .

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You should also make sure you’re aware of all  editorial policies  for the journal you plan to submit to. Don’t forget that you can contact our  editing services  to help you refine your manuscript.

how do we publish research papers

Discover advice and guidance for writing your paper

Step 3: making your submission.

Once you’ve chosen the right journal and written your manuscript, the next step in publishing your research paper is  to make your submission .

Each journal will have specific submission requirements, so make sure you visit  Taylor & Francis Online  and carefully check through the  instructions for authors  for your chosen journal.

How to submit your manuscript

To submit your manuscript you’ll need to ensure that you’ve gone through all the steps in our  making your submission  guide. This includes thoroughly understanding your chosen journal’s instructions for authors, writing an effective cover letter, navigating the journal’s submission system, and ensuring your research data is prepared as required.

You can also  improve your submission experience  with our guide to avoid obstacles and complete a seamless submission.

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To make sure you’ve covered everything before you hit ‘submit’ you can also take a look at our  ‘ready to submit’ checklist (don’t forget, you should only submit to one journal at a time).

how do we publish research papers

Understand the process of making your submission

Step 4: navigating the peer review process.

Now you’ve submitted your manuscript, you need to get to grips with one of the most important parts of publishing your research paper –  the peer review process .

What is peer review?

Peer review is the independent assessment of your research article by independent experts in your field. Reviewers, also sometimes called ‘referees’, are asked to judge the validity, significance, and originality of your work.

This process ensures that a peer-reviewed article has been through a rigorous process to make sure the methodology is sound, the work can be replicated, and it fits with the aims and scope of the journal that is considering it for publication. It acts as an important form of quality control for research papers.

Vector illustration showing a checklist, person with a magnifying glass, mug of hot drink to show the different elements of peer review.

Peer review is also a very useful source of feedback, helping you to improve your paper before it’s published. It is intended to be a collaborative process, where authors engage in a dialogue with their peers and receive constructive feedback and support to advance their work.

Almost all research articles go through peer review, although in some cases the journal may operate post-publication peer review, which means that reviews and reader comments are invited after the paper is published.

If you’ll like to feel more confident before getting your work peer reviewed by the journal, you may want to consider using an  in-depth technical review service from experts.

Understanding peer review

Peer review can be a complex process to get your head around. That’s why we’ve put together a  comprehensive guide to understanding peer review . This explains everything from the many different types of peer review to the step-by-step peer review process and how to revise your manuscript. It also has helpful advice on what to do if your manuscript is rejected.

how do we publish research papers

Visit our peer review guide for authors

Step 5: the production process.

If your paper is accepted for publication, it will then head into  production . At this stage of the process, the paper will be prepared for publishing in your chosen journal.

A lot of the work to produce the final version of your paper will be done by the journal production team, but your input will be required at various stages of the process.

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What do you need to do during production?

During production, you’ll have a variety of tasks to complete and decisions to make. For example, you’ll need to check and correct proofs of your article and consider whether or not you want to  produce a video abstract  to accompany it.

Take a look at  our guide to the production process  to find out what you’ll need to do in this final step to getting your research published.

Your research is published – now what?

You’ve successfully navigated publishing a research paper – congratulations! But the process doesn’t stop there. Now your research is published in a journal for the world to see, you’ll need to know  how to access your article  and  make sure it has an impact .

Here’s a  quick tip on how to boost your research impact  by investing in making your accomplishments stand out.

Below you’ll find helpful tips and post-publication support. From how to communicate about your research to how to request corrections or translations.

How to access your published article

When you publish with Taylor & Francis, you’ll have access to a new section on Taylor & Francis Online called  Authored Works . This will give you and all other named authors perpetual access to your article, regardless of whether or not you have a subscription to the journal you have published in.

You can also  order print copies of your article .

How to make sure your research has an impact

Taking the time to make sure your research has an impact can help drive your career progression, build your networks, and secure funding for new research. So, it’s worth investing in.

Creating a real impact with your work can be a challenging and time-consuming task, which can feel difficult to fit into an already demanding academic career.

To help you understand what impact means for you and your work, take a look at  our guide to research impact . It covers why impact is important, the different types of impact you can have, how to achieve impact – including tips on communicating with a variety of audiences – and how to measure your success.

how do we publish research papers

Keeping track of your article’s progress

Through your  Authored Works access , you’ll be able to get real-time insights about your article, such as views, downloads and citation numbers.

In addition, when you publish an article with us, you’ll be offered the option to sign up for email updates. These emails will be sent to you three, six and twelve months after your article is published to let you know how many views and citations the article has had.

Corrections and translations of published articles

Sometimes after an article has been published it may be necessary to make a change to the  Version of Record . Take a look at our dedicated  guide to corrections, expressions of concern, retractions and removals  to find out more.

You may also be interested in translating your article into another language. If that’s the case, take a look at our  information on article translations .

how do we publish research papers

Go to your guide on moving through production

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Your Career

7 steps to publishing in a scientific journal

Before you hit “submit,” here’s a checklist (and pitfalls to avoid)

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As scholars, we strive to do high-quality research that will advance science. We come up with what we believe are unique hypotheses, base our work on robust data and use an appropriate research methodology. As we write up our findings, we aim to provide theoretical insight, and share theoretical and practical implications about our work. Then we submit our manuscript for publication in a peer-reviewed journal.

Dr Aijaz Shaikh gives a presentation.

In my seven years of research and teaching, I have observed several shortcomings in the manuscript preparation and submission process that often lead to research being rejected for publication. Being aware of these shortcomings will increase your chances of having your manuscript published and also boost your research profile and career progression.

In this article, intended for doctoral students and other young scholars, I identify common pitfalls and offer helpful solutions to prepare more impactful papers. While there are several types of research articles, such as short communications, review papers and so forth, these guidelines focus on preparing a full article (including a literature review), whether based on qualitative or quantitative methodology, from the perspective of the management, education, information sciences and social sciences disciplines.

Writing for academic journals is a highly competitive activity, and it’s important to understand that there could be several reasons behind a rejection. Furthermore, the journal peer-review process is an essential element of publication because no writer could identify and address all potential issues with a manuscript.

1. Do not rush submitting your article for publication.

In my first article for Elsevier Connect – “ Five secrets to surviving (and thriving in) a PhD program ” – I emphasized that scholars should start writing during the early stages of your research or doctoral study career. This secret does not entail submitting your manuscript for publication the moment you have crafted its conclusion. Authors sometimes rely on the fact that they will always have an opportunity to address their work’s shortcomings after the feedback received from the journal editor and reviewers has identified them.

A proactive approach and attitude will reduce the chance of rejection and disappointment. In my opinion, a logical flow of activities dominates every research activity and should be followed for preparing a manuscript as well. Such activities include carefully re-reading your manuscript at different times and perhaps at different places. Re-reading is essential in the research field and helps identify the most common problems and shortcomings in the manuscript, which might otherwise be overlooked. Second, I find it very helpful to share my manuscripts with my colleagues and other researchers in my network and to request their feedback. In doing so, I highlight any sections of the manuscript that I would like reviewers to be absolutely clear on.

2. Select an appropriate publication outlet.

I also ask colleagues about the most appropriate journal to submit my manuscript to; finding the right journal for your article can dramatically improve the chances of acceptance and ensure it reaches your target audience.

Elsevier provides an innovative Journal Finder search facility on its website. Authors enter the article title, a brief abstract and the field of research to get a list of the most appropriate journals for their article. For a full discussion of how to select an appropriate journal see Knight and Steinbach (2008).

Less experienced scholars sometimes choose to submit their research work to two or more journals at the same time. Research ethics and policies of all scholarly journals suggest that authors should submit a manuscript to only one journal at a time. Doing otherwise can cause embarrassment and lead to copyright problems for the author, the university employer and the journals involved.

Learn about publishing at Elsevier

3. Read the aims and scope and author guidelines of your target journal carefully.

Once you have read and re-read your manuscript carefully several times, received feedback from your colleagues, and identified a target journal, the next important step is to read the aims and scope of the journals in your target research area. Doing so will improve the chances of having your manuscript accepted for publishing. Another important step is to download and absorb the author guidelines and ensure your manuscript conforms to them. Some publishers report that one paper in five does not follow the style and format requirements of the target journal, which might specify requirements for figures, tables and references.

Rejection can come at different times and in different formats. For instance, if your research objective is not in line with the aims and scope of the target journal, or if your manuscript is not structured and formatted according to the target journal layout, or if your manuscript does not have a reasonable chance of being able to satisfy the target journal’s publishing expectations, the manuscript can receive a desk rejection from the editor without being sent out for peer review. Desk rejections can be disheartening for authors, making them feel they have wasted valuable time and might even cause them to lose enthusiasm for their research topic. Sun and Linton (2014), Hierons (2016) and Craig (2010) offer useful discussions on the subject of “desk rejections.”

4. Make a good first impression with your title and abstract.

The title and abstract are incredibly important components of a manuscript as they are the first elements a journal editor sees. I have been fortunate to receive advice from editors and reviewers on my submissions, and feedback from many colleagues at academic conferences, and this is what I’ve learned:

Dr. Angel Borja goes into detail about these components in “ 11 steps to structuring a science paper editors will take seriously .”

Learn more in Elsevier's free Researcher Academy

5. Have a professional editing firm copy-edit ( not just proofread) your manuscript, including the main text, list of references, tables and figures.

The key characteristic of scientific writing is clarity. Before submitting a manuscript for publication, it is highly advisable to have a professional editing firm copy-edit your manuscript. An article submitted to a peer-reviewed journal will be scrutinized critically by the editorial board before it is selected for peer review. According to a statistic shared by Elsevier , between 30 percent and 50 percent of articles submitted to Elsevier journals are rejected before they even reach the peer-review stage, and one of the top reasons for rejection is poor language. A properly written, edited and presented text will be error free and understandable and will project a professional image that will help ensure your work is taken seriously in the world of publishing. On occasion, the major revisions conducted at the request of a reviewer will necessitate another round of editing.

Authors can facilitate the editing of their manuscripts by taking precautions at their end. These include proofreading their own manuscript for accuracy and wordiness (avoid unnecessary or normative descriptions like “it should be noted here” and “the authors believe) and sending it for editing only when it is complete in all respects and ready for publishing. Professional editing companies charge hefty fees, and it is simply not financially viable to have them conduct multiple rounds of editing on your article. Applications like the spelling and grammar checker in Microsoft Word or Grammarly are certainly worth applying to your article, but the benefits of proper editing are undeniable. For more on the difference between proofreading and editing, see the description in Elsevier’s WebShop.

6. Submit a cover letter with the manuscript.

Never underestimate the importance of a cover letter addressed to the editor or editor-in-chief of the target journal. Last year, I attended a conference in Boston. A “meet the editors” session revealed that many submissions do not include a covering letter, but the editors-in-chief present, who represented renewed and ISI-indexed Elsevier journals, argued that the cover letter gives authors an important opportunity to convince them that their research work is worth reviewing.

Accordingly, the content of the cover letter is also worth spending time on. Some inexperienced scholars paste the article’s abstract into their letter thinking it will be sufficient to make the case for publication; it is a practice best avoided. A good cover letter first outlines the main theme of the paper; second, argues the novelty of the paper; and third, justifies the relevance of the manuscript to the target journal. I would suggest limiting the cover letter to half a page. More importantly, peers and colleagues who read the article and provided feedback before the manuscript’s submission should be acknowledged in the cover letter.

7. Address reviewer comments very carefully.

Editors and editors-in-chief usually couch the acceptance of a manuscript as subject to a “revise and resubmit” based on the recommendations provided by the reviewer or reviewers. These revisions may necessitate either major or minor changes in the manuscript. Inexperienced scholars should understand a few key aspects of the revision process. First, it important to address the revisions diligently; second, is imperative to address all the comments received from the reviewers and avoid oversights; third, the resubmission of the revised manuscript must happen by the deadline provided by the journal; fourth, the revision process might comprise multiple rounds.

The revision process requires two major documents. The first is the revised manuscript highlighting all the modifications made following the recommendations received from the reviewers. The second is a letter listing the authors’ responses illustrating they have addressed all the concerns of the reviewers and editors. These two documents should be drafted carefully. The authors of the manuscript can agree or disagree with the comments of the reviewers (typically agreement is encouraged) and are not always obliged to implement their recommendations, but they should in all cases provide a well-argued justification for their course of action.

Given the ever increasing number of manuscripts submitted for publication, the process of preparing a manuscript well enough to have it accepted by a journal can be daunting. High-impact journals accept less than 10 percent of the articles submitted to them, although the acceptance ratio for special issues or special topics sections is normally over 40 percent. Scholars might have to resign themselves to having their articles rejected and then reworking them to submit them to a different journal before the manuscript is accepted.

The advice offered here is not exhaustive but it’s also not difficult to implement. These recommendations require proper attention, planning and careful implementation; however, following this advice could help doctoral students and other scholars improve the likelihood of getting their work published, and that is key to having a productive, exciting and rewarding academic career.


I would like to thank Professor Heikki Karjaluoto, Jyväskylä University School of Business and Economics for providing valuable feedback on this article.


Aijaz Shaikh, PhD

Aijaz Shaikh, PhD

Aijaz Shaikh has a PhD in Marketing from the Jyväskylä University School of Business & Economics (AMBA accredited), Finland, an MSc from Hanken School of Economics (AACSB / EQUIS/AMBA accredited), Finland. He is Member-Editorial Review Board of the  International Journal of E-Business Research and  special issue Guest Editor of the International Journal of E-Business Research. His academic specialty is in Marketing (consumer behaviour), Information Technology Adoption, and Mobile Financial Services.

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How to Write and Publish a Research Paper

The article i wish i read before writing and publishing my research papers.

You are currently doing your PhD. or interested in doing it in the future. You are maybe about to publish a scientific paper or simply curious about publishing your writing.

In this blog, I write about my experience with writing papers. I share with you tips and what I have learned during my career as a scientific researcher. I have written +7 articles in the top IEEE conferences and journals ( IEEE Transaction on Image Processing ) ( EUSIPCO , WOSSPA, GRETSI, GDR-ISIS, …). I also authored a journal paper published in Astronomy & Astrophysics . You can find the list of my publications in my Google Scholar profile or ResearchGate profile.

I split this blog into two distinct categories, in no particular order:

The Non Technical-Part

📝 the right paper format.

You need to select the appropriate format for your paper. There are very different categories of publications such as conference or Periodical, letters, review, conference, or journal article. Depending on the stage of your research or the level of information you are presenting, one may be more appropriate than another for your work to evaluate the message you want to communicate and select your format.

🔎 Choosing a Conference

If you want to submit a conference paper you need to choose which confidence, know that this is an event that you will have to attend. There are a lot of conferences, depending on your research area, each conference with its own location and dates. So make sure to know the top conferences in your fields, it’s important. Don’t hesitate to speak with your supervisors if you are a Ph.D. student, they generally have shortlisted conferences already.

Details matters

Once you choose the conference, you need to pay attention and read all details regarding the Deadline, Location, Author guidelines, Calls & Submission guidelines, and the Price.

⚠️Yes, you have to pay to publish your work in a peer-reviewed journal/conference. There is a free publications platform (like Medium), or open-source platforms like arXiv , but without peer review. Of course, don’t forget to pay the publication fees and the registration fees + the hotel in case of a conference paper.

Important points regarding the deadline, first of all, you don’t want to miss it!. Second of all, you want to submit before the deadline, obviously. Usually what happens is that authors would like do corrections on the submitted paper, which happens a lot, or maybe update the contents, …. Know that you have the possibility to perform changes on the submitted version before the submission deadline.

💡The earlier you submit your paper the better, give your self comfort and do not wait until the last day to avoid surprises.

Paper PDF Template kit

Most conferences and journals offer a template Kit to generate the final PDF paper. It is usually proposed in two formats: Microsoft word for Latex. Download the template kit and start editing the content. I make sure you respect the rules of the format (size, font, police, citations, tables, …).

Editing tool

I really recommend using latex even though it is painful compared to Microsoft word, but trust me, the PDF quality generated using latex is gorgeous.

💡 I suggest using TexStudio to edit your paper, it’s one of the best in my opinion.

Other material to prepare

Accepted conference papers have to be presented on the day of the conference event. Generally, there are two ways of presenting your work:

1- Presenting a poster

2- Or by giving a talk in front of an audience

In both cases, you will have to prepare an additional material summarizing your work, which could be either a poster or slides, it is the conference committee that makes the decision.

Exception for Journal papers

Regarding the journal paper, the procedure varies slightly. In general, there is no event happening so there is no deadline and there are no events dates. You can submit a journal paper whenever you want. Just make sure that your research is not outdated.

The Technical Part

🚀 before you start writing.

Asking some question before writing will help you understand your work and better explain it to others, such as

First of all, you need to choose a problem that you want to work on. You must be specific , otherwise, why bother doing a PhD.! Seriously don’t work on a specific problem that has been already addressed by someone else.

📎 Literature review

Getting to know what has been done by other researchers to solve the problem you want to address is key. and what are the advantages what are the limitation of the previous approaches, this is really important and critical in your step because to another for your research to be relevant you need to show and convince the reader or the university committee that will be charging your work that your contribution is worthy and you are proposing variable research

⚠️ For this step, procrastination will attempt to be your closest friend. just be aware of it and do not accept it as a friend.

💡 I suggest using Mendeley to manage your references. Simple and easy to use, you can use it on your phone, PC, or browser.

This step will define the foundation of your work so you will start by implementing some methods and get to know what has been done what are the limitations as I said before and from then you will discover what hasn’t been done and sometimes in other research, the researchers highlight what they want to do and what they couldn’t do maybe this will give you an idea to start from and from experience the ones that master this step and go easily for the next steps and those that don’t will struggle and we’ll have to do this work at the end of their thesis.

🔧 Developing the Manuscript: Which is first, Results or Writing the Paper ?

From writing the paper to results.

You can start first by writing the paper and filling the blank with content as you move forward in your research. The paper, in this case, will drive your research and will drive your work forward, this is an anglophone approach.

Filling the blank makes you think about the topic and ask yourself questions, such as what is the topic I want to address? what has been done before? which strategy or methodology should I propose? and so on.

From Results to Writing the Paper

Or you can follow the francophone approach which consists of focusing on getting the result first then writing paper. This works best for someone who already knows the subject and the problem is addressed. As soon as he gets some results he can start writing the paper. The next task will be to justify an argument and try to fit in among the research in the literature.

There is no good or wrong strategy here, they both work very well, just pick one approach and stick to it.

💡 If you are a PhD. student, don’t hesitate to discuss this with your supervisor. They will guide you and walk you through your PhD.

📌 Where to Begin Writing?

Scientific and technical articles typically follow this format :

Each section of your paper plays a different role in explaining to the reader why your research presents a new and important problem, what has been done before, and how your research substantially advances your field.

💡 I recommend you follow this order: Start by formulating the problem, then writing about the methods you used to solve it, followed by the results. Next, You go back to the introduction, and then your conclusions. The abstract should be written last.

After you have drafted all of the sections, you should revisit your title and author list to be sure it accurately represents your final work. Acknowledgments and references can be completed after the article is written.

🗣 Submission & Peer review

Re-iterate the revision and correction with your co-authors. The more you iterate the better. By the time goes you will converge to a final version of the paper. Also, get your friends or colleagues to review the paper. There could be some mistakes that you can not see. And you are good at submitting your paper.

💡 Remember, always iterate with your co-authors before submitting the paper. You must have their approval to avoid misunderstanding or confusion that might occur.

Conclusion and Take Away

From my personal experience, I can tell that It is normal to be messy while writing, know that’s ok and that is inevitable. Do not get overwhelmed. Be consistent and do not forget to give yourself a break 🙂. You need to create enough order in your writing routine to be able to move forward.

There you have it, I hope you get some value from this blog and you will benefit from it for your next paper. 💯

What to do next ❓

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Amine Hadj-Youcef. PhD

Lead Data Scientist - ML Engineer | https://aminehy.github.io/ | https://medium.com/membership/@amine-hy

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