Purdue Online Writing Lab College of Liberal Arts
Reference List: Basic Rules
Welcome to the Purdue OWL
This page is brought to you by the OWL at Purdue University. When printing this page, you must include the entire legal notice.
Copyright ©1995-2018 by The Writing Lab & The OWL at Purdue and Purdue University. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use.
Note: This page reflects the latest version of the APA Publication Manual (i.e., APA 7), which released in October 2019. The equivalent resource for the older APA 6 style can be found here .
This resource, revised according to the 7 th edition APA Publication Manual, provides fundamental guidelines for constructing the reference pages of research papers. For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , (7 th ed.).
This page gives basic guidelines for formatting the reference list at the end of a standard APA research paper. Most sources follow fairly straightforward rules. However, because sources obtained from academic journals carry special weight in research writing, these sources are subject to special rules . Thus, this page presents basic guidelines for citing academic journals separate from its "ordinary" basic guidelines. This distinction is made clear below.
Note: Because the information on this page pertains to virtually all citations, we've highlighted one important difference between APA 6 and APA 7 with an underlined note written in red.
Formatting a Reference List
Your reference list should appear at the end of your paper. It provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source you cite in the body of the paper. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list; likewise, each entry in the reference list must be cited in your text.
Your references should begin on a new page separate from the text of the essay; label this page "References" in bold, centered at the top of the page (do NOT underline or use quotation marks for the title). All text should be double-spaced just like the rest of your essay.
Basic Rules for Most Sources
- All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented one-half inch from the left margin. This is called hanging indentation.
- All authors' names should be inverted (i.e., last names should be provided first).
- For example, the reference entry for a source written by Jane Marie Smith would begin with "Smith, J. M."
- If a middle name isn't available, just initialize the author's first name: "Smith, J."
- Give the last name and first/middle initials for all authors of a particular work up to and including 20 authors ( this is a new rule, as APA 6 only required the first six authors ). Separate each author’s initials from the next author in the list with a comma. Use an ampersand (&) before the last author’s name. If there are 21 or more authors, use an ellipsis (but no ampersand) after the 19th author, and then add the final author’s name.
- Reference list entries should be alphabetized by the last name of the first author of each work.
- For multiple articles by the same author, or authors listed in the same order, list the entries in chronological order, from earliest to most recent.
- Note again that the titles of academic journals are subject to special rules. See section below.
- Italicize titles of longer works (e.g., books, edited collections, names of newspapers, and so on).
- Do not italicize, underline, or put quotes around the titles of shorter works such as chapters in books or essays in edited collections.
Basic Rules for Articles in Academic Journals
- Present journal titles in full.
- Italicize journal titles.
- For example, you should use PhiloSOPHIA instead of Philosophia, or Past & Present instead of Past and Present.
- This distinction is based on the type of source being cited. Academic journal titles have all major words capitalized, while other sources' titles do not.
- Capitalize the first word of the titles and subtitles of journal articles , as well as the first word after a colon or a dash in the title, and any proper nouns .
- Do not italicize or underline the article title.
- Deep blue: The mysteries of the Marianas Trench.
- Oceanographic Study: A Peer-Reviewed Publication
Please note: While the APA manual provides examples of how to cite common types of sources, it does not cover all conceivable sources. If you must cite a source that APA does not address, the APA suggests finding an example that is similar to your source and using that format. For more information, see page 282 of the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association , 7 th ed.
Thank you for your interest in our company.
Unfortunately, we are not hiring writers now due to low season.
We will be glad to review your application in the future.
- Plagiarism checker Do The Check
- Academic editing Ask For Help
- Samples database View Samples Base
How to Write References and Cite Sources in a Research Paper
24 Jun 2021
What should referencing do in a research paper, references and the citation format for a research paper.
It is crucial to be aware of important things about formatting when performing your paperwork such as a research paper or an essay. Analysis work should contain from eight to ten pages. The selected format of references in a research paper determines how to order them in one’s paperwork.
It is necessary to explain where one’s sources come from. Referencing serves as signs pointing to any kind of information you use. When it comes to citing - it is a means to show the readers that some information from your paperwork comes not from you.
The end has the same look in all formats, except the issue date. When citing in a research paper, remember the following standards:
- The cover page and the reference page are not counted;
- In total you will have ten or twelve pages;
- Cite eight different sources as a minimum. They should be dated from 2002 or later;
- Include articles of which five are scholarly reviewed;
- As footnotes are forbidden you need to apply APA citing to cite sources ;
- Remember to reread the work before handing it in to check it for errors. Headings are to be used according to the requirements.
Write research paper references alphabetically, starting with the author’s last name and after by the article, website or organization name. Each line including lines within a single reference must be indented. Here are some examples:
- Australia. Attorney-Generals Department. Digital Agenda Review, 4 Vols. Canberra: Attorney- General's Department, 2003.
- Satalkar, B. (2010, July 15). Water aerobics. Retrieved from URL
To know more details about formatting for various types of sources - review the APA Writing Style Guide .
Need help with writing a research paper?
Get your paper written by a professional writer
To understand how to cite in a research paper, learn about different styles which were created for this purpose. For example, MLA style for writing, which was founded by the Modern Language Association is applied in liberal sciences for formatting documents and source citing. The format is used in Canada, the USA and other countries where students write paperwork in English. Here are some characteristics of MLA:
- Citations are clear and short;
- Use a parenthetical citation while making references to another author’s paper,
- Do not apply an indent from the left margin for each new line, the following lines are to be four-seven spaces from margin;
- List all in an alphabetic arrangement. Divide them by the authors’ last names or by source name;
- Capitalize the words excluding articles, prepositions, and conjunctions when you write the name of sources.
Generate Citations Automatically
To make the research paper citation list and bibliography faster, take advantage of an MLA Citation Generator . There are numerous free MLA citation and references for research papers and bibliography generators. While using them, you should follow such steps:
- Choose the source - newspapers, magazines, scholarly articles, books, website or movie.
- Include the name of the writer, year, title, location, publisher, the edition and type of recording;
- Once you added the necessary data, just click the button “generate citation” and obtain it in the perfect shape.
If you do not know when to use in-text citations, apply APA Style. It refers to the rules established by the American Psychological Association to document references and make their understanding easier. An in-text citation should be included when you paraphrase or summarize a source.
For example: “If one establishes a regular routine, such as exercise, it can help sufferers recover from a disease." (American Psychological Association [APA], n.d.) To make your work easier, use an citation generator APA . It will handle any task creating citations or full references in accordance with the rules such as:
- The correct introduction of the writer’s name;
- Citing the writer’s name in the text or in the parenthetical citation which follows the cited passage;
- Writing the publication date after the name of the cited authority;
If it is required to cite from a website, just apply MLA format as it does not need the URL/Link. Nonetheless, sometimes the instructors ask for it. Bear in mind the footnote style of in-text citations. Examples of full citing: “Spain.” Travel.State. Foreign Affairs, U.S. Department of State, 11 Oct. 2013. Web. 5 April 2013.
No matter what kind of assignment you write - an essay, a thesis, or research papers, the style matters a lot. There are multiple ways in which you are able to reference the source, however, the most popular are APA and MLA formats with their variations. Choose the one you need and apply it to the paperwork. Also, remember internal citation. Mixing the formats could make text unclear to the reader.
If you are a student or writer, you will face this challenge and have to apply the required format, but if you do not have enough time, use a professional research paper writing services . Get your high-quality assignment with little effort. It will be written by professional authors and delivered on time.
Was this article helpful?
Thanks for your feedback.
Prof. Linda Mia
I’ve worked for the past eight years as a content editor, creative writer, and professional essay writer. Every day, I work hard to make sure my clients are satisfied with the projects and papers I write for them. My areas of expertise are wide, ranging from Psychology and Sociology to Political Science and World History.
Readers also enjoyed
100 communication research topics.
Research Paper Writing Guides 32 likes
Methodology in Research Paper
Research Paper Writing Guides 44 likes
Social Work Research Topics
Research Paper Writing Guides 70 likes
WHY WAIT? PLACE AN ORDER RIGHT NOW!
Simply fill out the form, click the button, and have no worries!
College of Business and Economics
- COBE Writing Style Guide
Guidelines for Citations and References
Using external sources without citing them is considered plagiarism. Authors must provide enough information so that readers can go to the original sources and review them. This involves two things: Citations and References.
- Citations briefly identify the source of borrowed information, quotes, and figures in the text. The citation must be placed at the beginning, middle or end of the borrowed information. It must be clear what information is borrowed and where it comes from, including page references whenever possible. The brief citation matches the first word(s) in an entry in the reference list; the author(s) or title serves as a main entry in the reference list.
- The reference list contains the full descriptions of only those sources that are cited in the paper. It enables the reader to find any source cited in the paper. The references are placed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper.
Citing Borrowed Material
Citations include the author’s last name, the year of publication, and a page number if available. If an author is not available, use the title of the work (or a short form of the title, if it is lengthy). Titles that are italicized in the reference list are italicized in text; titles that are not italicized in the reference list appear in quotation marks. Some examples follow. This is by no means an all- inclusive list. The APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, sections 6.01–6.21, pp. 169–179, provides more examples of citation style.
References and a bibliography are not the same.
- In References , you list only the items you have actually cited.
- In a Bibliography , you list all of the material you have consulted in preparing your essay whether or not you have actually cited the work.
Most Boise State College of Business and Economics disciplines use the references page to list the sources within the text of the report from which information was obtained. For more details about bibliographies, see Appendix A: Bibliography on the Style Guide References and Bibliography page.
Each citation in the text must correspond to an item in the reference list.
Each entry in references must be cited in the text in the proper way to easily lead the reader to the reference in the list (see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, Chapters 6 and 7 for an extensive discussion).
On the references page, arrange entries:
- In alphabetical order by surname of first author. (If no author is given, alphabetize by first word of title.)
- In order of date, with earliest first, for references by the same author.
- With hanging indents, meaning the first line of each reference is set flush left and subsequent lines are indented.
- In double space with the word References appearing in uppercase and lowercase letters, centered.
A reference list includes only references that document the article and provide recoverable data. Don’t include personal communications such as letters, memos, and informational electronic communications. Instead, cite those online in text (see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, section 6.20 for format).
In all reference entries, certain pieces of information need to be included if at all possible. These include things like author(s), year of publication, title and pages. However, some specific pieces of information vary for different types of references.
Basic components and formats include the following:
- Article : Author’s last name, First and Middle (if available) initials. (Publication date). Title of article. Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue number), start page-end page.
- Book : Author’s last name, First and Middle (if available) initials. (Copyright date). Book title. Publisher’s city: Publisher’s name.
NOTE: APA does not use the words “Volume,” “Vol.,” or “Issue” in reference list entries, just the appropriate numbers. If no publication date is available, use (n.d.) to indicate that there is no publication date.
NOTE: The paragraph format for reference entries is a “Hanging Indent” where the first line is left flush and subsequent lines are indented. In MS WORD, use the FORMAT > PARAGRAPH > INDENTS and SPACING > INDENTATION > SPECIAL > HANGING style menu.
NOTE: Place the DOI at the end of the reference. If there is no DOI, cite the home page URL.
What is a digital object identifier, or DOI?
DOI: digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique alphanumeric string assigned by a registration agency (the International DOI Foundation) to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The publisher assigns a DOI when your article is published and made available electronically.
Sample Citations and Reference List Entries
Examples of citation placement in text.
When one author is referred to in the middle of a sentence list the citation like this, “Kessler (2003) found that among epidemiological samples . . .”
When the citation is referenced without mentioning the author in the sentence list the citation like this, “Early onset results in a more persistent and severe course (Kessler, 2003).”
When two authors are referred to in the middle of a sentence list the citation like this, “. . . as Kurtines and Szapocznik (2003) demonstrated. . .”
When the citation is referenced without mentioning the authors in the sentence list the citation like this, “. . . as has been shown (Jeskog and Som, 2007). . .”
Three or more authors
Cite all the authors the first time the work is mentioned. After that use only the surname of the first author followed by “et al.” For example, Kisangau, Lyaruu, Hosea, and Joseph (2007) found [Use as first citation in text.] Kisangau et al. (2007) found [Use as subsequent first citation per paragraph thereafter.]
Multiple sources cited for the same piece of information
Order sources alphabetically as they are in the reference list. For example, “Kosslyn, Koenig, Barrett, Cave, Tang, and Gabrieli (996).”
List the direct quote in quotation marks followed by the citation including the author, year, and page. For example, “Behavior has been referred to as “blah blah” (Bradley, 1998, p. 276).”
Refer to both sources in the text, but only put the one source you used in the References list. For example, Allport’s diary (as cited in Nicholson, 2003).
In this case, if Allport’s work is cited in Nicholson and you did not read Allport’s work, list the Nicholson reference in the reference list.
Use the title of the article, or part of the title, and the year. Make sure that the title or title part corresponds to the name in the Reference list. This often occurs with daily newspaper articles. For example, “It was recently reported that a new drug appears to cut the risk of heart failure (“New Drug,” 1993).”
Citing Personal Communication and Interviews
These include private letters, memos, some electronic communication (e.g., e-mails or electronic bulletin boards), personal interviews, and telephone conversation. For example, “T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)” or “(V. G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1998).”
The citation of interviews depends on the nature of the interview.
If the interview is in a form that is recoverable (e.g., a recording, transcript, published Q&A), use the reference format appropriate for the source in which the interview is available.
If you have interviewed someone for information about your topic and that person has agreed to be identified as a source, cite the source as a personal communication (in text only). For example, “(G. Fink-Nottle, personal communication, April 5, 2011).”
Personal communications do not have reference list entries because they cannot be retrieved.
Interviews of research participants
No citation is needed for remarks made by participants in the research on which you’re reporting. Do not cite these as personal communications; this would breach the participants’ guarantee of confidentiality.
For more information on interviews, see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, section 1.11, pp. 16-17; section 6.20, p. 179; section 7.10, Examples 69 and 70, p. 214.
Citing Electronic Sources
Given the rich and varied online publishing environment, APA Publication Manual, sixth edition recommends including the same elements, in the same order, as a reference to a fixed-media source and add as much electronic retrieval information as needed for others to locate the sources cited.
Here are basic guidelines of the APA Publication Manual, sixth edition for citing electronic sources in the reference list.
For a passing reference to a website in text, the URL is sufficient; no reference list entry is needed. For example, “(http://gfnnfg.livejournal.com/).”
However, when you are citing a particular document or piece of information from a website, include both a reference list entry and an in-text citation. The key to creating the reference list entry is to determine the type of content on the web page. Basically, provide the following four pieces of information:
- Title of document [Format description].
- Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
The in-text citation includes the author and date (Author, date), as with any other APA Style citation.
For more information see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, section 6.32, pp. 189–192; Chapter 7, Examples 29, 30, 54, 55, and 76, pp. 198–215.
The reference list entry for an e-book includes the author, date, title, and source (URL or DOI). For a chapter in an e-book, include the chapter title and page numbers (if available). The in-text citation includes the author and date, as with any other APA Style citation.
For a whole e-book
- With DOI : Author, A. (date). Title of book. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
- Without DOI : Author, A. (date). Title of book. doi:xxxxxxxxxxxx
For a chapter in an e-book
- With DOI : Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). doi:xxxxxxxxxx
- Without DOI : Author, A. (date). Title of chapter. In E. Editor (Ed.), Title of book (pp. xx–xx). Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx
For more information see: APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, section 7.02, pp. 202–205.
Facebook and Twitter
Although the APA Publication Manual (sixth edition) does not include specific Facebook citation formats, you can adapt the basic reference format to fit. For more information see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, p. 193.
Here’s the general format for creating a reference for a video found on YouTube and other video-posting websites:
If both the real name of the person who posted the video and the screen name are known: Author, A. A. [Screen name]. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx.
If only the screen name of the person who posted the video is known: Screen name. (year, month day). Title of video [Video file]. Retrieved from http://xxxxxxxxx The in-text citations include the author name outside of brackets (whichever that may be) and the date.
Digital Object Identifier (DOI)
A digital object identifier (DOI) is a unique string of letters, numbers, and symbols assigned to a published work to identify content and provide a persistent link to its location on the Internet. The DOI is typically located on the first page of an electronic document near the copyright notice and on the database landing page for the document. When DOIs are available, include them in the reference information. Place the DOI at the end of the reference, and don’t add a period at the end of it. For example, “Author, A. (year). Title of article. Journal Title, X, xxx–xxx. doi:xxxxxx.”
How does this look in practice?
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Note: If there is no DOI, provide the URL for the journal homepage as the second choice. The retrieval date is not required in this type of reference
For more information see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, sections 6.31–6.32, pp. 187–192
No page numbers
For electronic sources that do not provide page numbers, use the paragraph number, if available, proceeded by the paragraph symbol (¶) or the abbreviation para. For example, “As Myers (2000, ¶ 5) aptly phrased it, “positive emotions are both an end…”
If neither paragraph nor page numbers are visible, cite the heading and the number of the paragraph following it to direct the reader to the location of the material. For example, “The current system of managed care and the current approach to defining empirically supported treatments are shortsighted” (Beutler, 2000, Conclusion section, para 1).”
When there is no author for a web page, the text citation would then just cite a few words of the title. For example, “…are most at risk of contracting the disease (“New Child,” 2001).”
When discussing—but not citing—an entire web site (but not a specific document on that site), it is sufficient to give the address of the site in just the text (no entry in the reference list is needed). For example, “Kidspsych, which can be found at http://www.kidspsych.org, is a wonderful interactive web site for children.”
Additional guidelines for citing electronic sources
Here are additional guidelines on citing electronic sources (APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, section 6.32):
- You may need to do a quick web search to locate the website URL. Transcribe the URL correctly by copying it directly from the address window in your browser and pasting it into your working document.
- Do not insert a hyphen if you need to break a URL across lines; instead, break the URL before most punctuation. Do not add a period after the URL, to prevent the impression that the period is part of the URL.
- In general, it is not necessary to include database information. Journal coverage in a particular database may change over time; also, if using an aggregator such as EBSCO, OVID, or Pro Quest (each of which contain many discipline-specific databases, such as PsycINFO), it may be unclear exactly which database provided the full text of an article.
- Some archival documents (e.g., discontinued journals, monographs, dissertations, or papers not formally published) can only be found in electronic databases such as ERIC or JSTOR. When the document is not easily located through its primary publishing channels, give the home or entry page URL for the online archive.
- Do not include retrieval dates unless your instructor requires it and the source material may change over time (e.g., Wikis).
- As with references to material in print or other fixed media, it is preferable to cite the final version (i.e., archival copy or version of record; see APA Publication Manual, sixth edition, section 6.24).
Examples of Reference List Entries
Journal article with doi, in-text citation.
The in-text citation for journal articles with a DOI is listed as authors (Year, found..). For example, “Herbst-Damm and Kulik (2005, found…”
Herbst-Damm, K.L., and Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support, marital status, and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology , 24, 225-229. doi: 10.1037/027S-6 1 126.96.36.199
Journal article with DOI more than seven authors
The in-text citation for journal articles with a DOI and more than seven authors is listed as the first author (et. al., year). For example, “… (Gilbert et al., 2004)…”
Gilbert, D.G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N.E., Sugai, C., Plath, L.C., Asgaard, G., Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention last for more than 31 days and are more severe with stress, dependence, DR D2 A1allele, and depressive traits. Nicotine and Tobacco Research , 6, 249-267 Doi:10.1SO/14622200410001676305
Journal article without DOI (when DOI is not available)
Note: Give the URL of the home page if no DOI is assigned. No retrieval date is needed.
The in-text citation for journal articles without DOI is listed as the aauthors (year). For example, “Sillick and Schutte (2006) described…”
Sillick, T.J., and Schutte, N. S. (2006). Emotional intelligence and self-esteem mediate between perceived early parental love and adult happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, 2 (2), 38-48.
Light, M. A., and Light, I. H. (2008). The geographic expansion of Mexican immigration in the United States and its implications for local law enforcement. Law Enforcement Executive Forum Journal, 8 (1), 73-82.
Abstract as original source
The in-text citation for abstracts as original sources is listed as the abstract title (year). For example, “According to the Society for Neuroscience (1991)…”
Woolf, N. J., Young, S. L., Fanselow, M. S., and Butcher, L. L. (1991). MAP-2 expression in cholinoceptive pyramidal cells of rodent cortex and hippocampus is altered by Pavlovian conditioning [Abstract]. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts , 17, 480.
The in-text citation for magazine articles is listed as author (year). For example, “Novotney and Price (2008) argue that…”
Chamberlin, J., Novotney, A., Packard, E., and Price, M. (2008, May). Enhancing worker well-being: Occupational health psychologists convene to share their research on work, stress, and health. Monitor on Psychology , 39 (5), 26-2.
Online magazine article
The in-text citation for online magazine articles is listed as author (year). For example, “Clay (2008) finds…”
Clay, R. (2008, June). Science vs. ideology: Psychologists fight back about the misuse of research. Monitor on Psychology , 39 (6).
Newsletter article with no author
The in-text citation for newspaper articles with no authors is listed as the title (hyperlink). For example, “Several…met at a comprehensive anti- gang conference (http://www. ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/ne wsacglance/216684/topstory.htm)…”
Six sites meet for comprehensive anti-gang initiative conference. (2006, November/December). OJJDP News @ a Glance . Retrieved from http://www.ncjrs.gov/html/ojjdp/newsac glance/216684/topstory.html
The in-text citation for newspaper articles is listed as title (author, year). For example, “Obesity is found to …(Schwartz, 1993).”
Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Obesity affects economic, social status. The Washington Post , pp. A1, A4.
Online newspaper article
The in-text citation for online newspaper articles is listed as author (year). For example, “According to J.E. Brody (2007)…”
Brody, J. E. (2007, December 11). Mental reserves keep brain agile. The New York Times .
- Author, A. A. (1967). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
- Author, A. A. (1997). Title of work . Retrieved from http://www.xxxxxxx
- Author, A. A. (2006). Title of work . doi:xxxxx
- Editor, A. A. (Ed.). (1986). Title of work . Location: Publisher.
Chapter in a book or entry in a reference book
- Author, A. A., and Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Location: Publisher.
- Author, A. A., and Author, B. B. (1993). Title of chapter or entry. In A Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). Retrieved from http ://www.xxxxxxx
- Author, A. A., and Author, B. B. (1995). Title of chapter or entry. In A Editor, B. Editor, & C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pp. xxx-xxx). doi:xxxxxxxx
Entire Book, print version
The in-text citation for entire printed book is listed as author (year). For example, “Shotton (1989) asserts ….”
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency . London, England: Taylor and Francis.
Reference Entry Format and Components: Note carefully the use of italics and punctuation.
Author’s last name and initial(s). (Publication date). Book title in italics and using capital letters for the first word of the title and subtitle and for any proper nouns . City, state of publication: Publisher.
Electronic version of print book
The in-text citation for electronic version of a print book is listed as author (year). For example, “…as is mentioned by Shotton (1989)…”
Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader Version]. Retrieved from http://www.ebookstore.tandf.co.uk/ html/index.asp
Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].doi: 10.1036/0071393722
Electronic only book
The in-text citation for electronic only books is listed as author (n.d). For example, “O’Keefe (n.d.) found…”
O’Keefe, E. (n.d.). Egoism & the crisis in Western values . Retrieved from http://www.onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp??itemID=35
Book chapter, print version
The in-text citation for a chapter in a print version of a book is listed as author (year, pp. xx-xx). For example, “Haybron (2008, pp. 17-43) found…”
Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well- being . In M. Eid and R. Larsen (Eds.). The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.
Corporate author, government report
The in-text citation for government reports is listed as department (year) report. For example, “The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, (2003) report…”
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (NIH Publication No. 02-2650). Retrieved from http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf
Use this form for issue briefs, working papers, and other corporate documents, with the appropriate document number for retrieval in parentheses.
The in-text citation for issue briefs is listed as institute name (year). For example, “The Employee Benefit Research Institute (1992) report…”
Employee Benefit Research Institute. (1992, February). Sources of health insurance and characteristics of the uninsured (Issue Brief No.123). Washington, DC: Author.
Paper presentation or poster session
The in-text citation for paper presentations or poster sessions is listed as presenters name (year) presented… For example, “A.A. Presenter (year) presented…”
Presenter, A. A. (Year, Month). Title of paper or poster . Paper or poster session presented at the meeting of Organization Name, Location.
The in-text citation for videos is listed as producer (year). For example, “According to the American Psychological Association (2000), …”
American Psychological Association (Producer). (2000). Responding therapeutically to patient expressions of sexual attraction [DVD]. Available from http://www.a pa.org/videos/
The in-text citation for podcasts is listed as date and podcast name. For example, “During a December 19, 2007 Shrink rap radio podcast, participants…”
Van Nuys, D. (Producer). (2007, December 19). Shrink rap radio [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.shrinkrapradio.com/
Single episode from a television series
The in-text citation for an episode from a television series is listed as series name (year). For example, “In an episode of Failure to communicate (2005) …”
Egan, D. (Writer). and Alexander, J. (Director). (2005). Failure to communicate [Television series episode]. In D. Shore (Executive producer). House. New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.
In text citations, include side and band or track numbers. For example, “ Shadow and the Frame ” (Lang, 2008, track 10).
Lang, K.D. (2008). Shadow and the frame . On Watershed [CD]. New York, N Y: Nonesuch Records.
Photographer, F.M. (Photographer). (Year, month date of publication). Title of photograph [photograph]. City, State of publication: Publisher/museum.
Photographer, F.M. (Photographer). (Year, Month Date of Publication). Title of Photograph [digital image]. Retrieved from URL
Cartier-Bresson, H. (Photograph). (1938). Juvisy, France [photograph]. New York, NY: The Museum of Modern Art
O’Shea, P. (Photographer). (2010, August 29). Rescued hedgehog [digital image]. Retrieved from http://flickr.com/photos/peteoshea/5 476076002/
Message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group
The in-text citation for a message posted to a newsgroup, online forum, or discussion group is listed as author (year) or (F. L, year). For example, “J.R. Drake (2014) argues that. . . . ” OR “. . . to remain competitive (J.R. Drake, 2014).”
Author. A. [or Alias.] (Year, Month day). Title of discussion thread [Online forum comment]. Message posted to Web address
Drake, J.R. (2014 May 5). Re: Incidentals of XII Technologies [Online forum comment]. Retrieved from http://forums.XII/archive/188815
Message posted to an electronic mailing list
The in-text citation for messages posted to an electronic mailing list is listed as author (year). For example, “Smith (2006) describes…”
Smith, S. (2006, January 5). Re: Disputed estimates of IQ [Electronic mailing list message]. Retrieved from http://tech.groups.yahoo.com/group/ ForensicNetwork/message/670
The in-text citation for a blog post is listed as author (year). For example, “PZ Myers (2007) found…”
PZ Myers. (2007, January 22). The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log post]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/ 2007/01/theunfortunateprerequisites
A blog comment would be referenced as follows:
Middle Kid. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind [Web log comment]. Retrieved from http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/ 2007/01/theunfortunateprerequisites.
Interview recorded and available in an archive
The in-text citation for interviews recorded and available in an archive is listed as the name and year. For example, “Smith (1989) describes…”
Smith, M.B. (1989, August 12). Interview by C. A. Kiesler [Tape recording]. President’s Oral History Project. American Psychological Association. APA Archives, Washington, DC.
The in-text citation for software is listed as software title, version number. For example, “…is calculated by… (Comprehensive Meta- Analysis, version 2).”
Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (Version 2) [Computer software]. Englewood, NJ: Biostat.
Personal communications may be private letters, memos, some electronic communications (e.g., e-mail or messages from nonarchived discussion groups or electronic bulletin boards), personal interviews, telephone conversations, and the like. Because they do not provide recoverable data, personal communications are not included in the reference list. Cite personal communications in text only. Give the initials as well as the surname of the communicator, and provide as exact a date as possible.
T. K. Lutes (personal communication, April 18, 2001)
(V.-G. Nguyen, personal communication, September 28, 1 998)
- Guidelines for Writing
- Grammar Fundamentals
- Writing Style
- Guidelines for Reports
- Recognizing and Avoiding Plagiarism
- Citations and References
- Communication Guidelines
- Style Guide References and Bibliography
Educational resources and simple solutions for your research journey
A Beginner’s Guide to Citations, References and Bibliography in Research Papers
As an academician, terms such as citations, references and bibliography might be a part of almost every work-related conversation in your daily life. However, many researchers, especially during the early stages of their academic career, may find it hard to differentiate between citations, references and bibliography in research papers and often find it confusing to implement their usage. If you are amongst them, this article will provide you with some respite. Let us start by first understanding the individual terms better.
Citation in research papers: A citation appears in the main text of the paper. It is a way of giving credit to the information that you have specifically mentioned in your research paper by leading the reader to the original source of information. You will need to use citation in research papers whenever you are using information to elaborate a particular concept in the paper, either in the introduction or discussion sections or as a way to support your research findings in the results section.
Reference in research papers: A reference is a detailed description of the source of information that you want to give credit to via a citation. The references in research papers are usually in the form of a list at the end of the paper. The essential difference between citations and references is that citations lead a reader to the source of information, while references provide the reader with detailed information regarding that particular source.
Bibliography in research papers:
A bibliography in research paper is a list of sources that appears at the end of a research paper or an article, and contains information that may or may not be directly mentioned in the research paper. The difference between reference and bibliography in research is that an individual source in the list of references can be linked to an in-text citation, while an individual source in the bibliography may not necessarily be linked to an in-text citation.
It’s understandable how these terms may often be used interchangeably as they are serve the same purpose – namely to give intellectual and creative credit to an original idea that is elaborated in depth in a research paper. One of the easiest ways to understand when to use an in-text citation in research papers, is to check whether the information is an ongoing work of research or if it has been proven to be a ‘fact’ through reproducibility. If the information is a proven fact, you need not specifically add the original source to the list of references but can instead choose to mention it in your bibliography. For instance, if you use a statement such as “The effects of global warming and climate changes on the deterioration of environment have been described in depth”, you need not use an in-text citation, but can choose to mention key sources in the bibliography section. An example of a citation in a research paper would be if you intend to elaborate on the impact of climate change in a particular population and/or a specific geographical location. In this case, you will need to add an in-text citation and mention the correct source in the list of references.
Now that you have understood the basic similarities and differences in these terms, you should also know that every journal follows a particular style and format for these elements. So when working out how to write citations and add references in research papers, be mindful of using the preferred style of your target journal before you submit your research document.
Top 16 digital tools that every researcher should know about
What is the background of a study and how to write it (examples included)
Research and Writing Guides
Writing a paper? Don't get lost.
How to format your references using the Investigational New Drugs citation style
This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Investigational New Drugs . For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors .
- Using reference management software
Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:
- Journal articles
Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.
Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.
- Books and book chapters
Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.
Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Investigational New Drugs .
This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".
- Theses and dissertations
Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.
- News paper articles
Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
- In-text citations
References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets :
- About the journal
- Other styles
- International Journal of Impact Engineering
- Human Genomics
- American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
The free Scribbr Citation Generator is the quickest way to cite sources in these styles. Simply enter the URL, DOI, or title, and we’ll generate an accurate, correctly formatted citation. Generate accurate citations with Scribbr Webpage Book Video Journal article Online news article APA Cite
Reference citations in text are covered on pages 261-268 of the Publication Manual. What follows are some general guidelines for referring to the works of others in your essay. Cite your source automatically in APA Cite Using citation machines responsibly Powered by
In-Text Citations: Author/Authors Reference List: Basic Rules Reference List: Author/Authors Reference List: Articles in Periodicals Reference List: Books Reference List: Other Print Sources Reference List: Electronic Sources Reference List: Audiovisual Media Reference List: Other Non-Print Sources Legal References Footnotes & Appendices
APA Style is widely used by students, researchers, and professionals in the social and behavioral sciences. Scribbr’s free citation generator automatically generates accurate references and in-text citations. This citation guide outlines the most important citation guidelines from the 7th edition APA Publication Manual (2020). Cite a webpage
For the reference lists located at the end of the research paper, you need to cite four major elements: Author: includes the individual author names format and group author names format Date: includes the date format and how to include retrieval dates Title: includes the title format and how to include bracketed descriptions
There are numerous free MLA citation and references for research papers and bibliography generators. While using them, you should follow such steps: Choose the source - newspapers, magazines, scholarly articles, books, website or movie. Include the name of the writer, year, title, location, publisher, the edition and type of recording;
If the citations follow the Harvard system, references in a research papers are sorted alphabetically by the last name of the first author; if the citations follow the Vancouver system, the references are arranged by numbers: the reference corresponding to the first numbered citation is numbered 1, and so on.
The reference list contains the full descriptions of only those sources that are cited in the paper. It enables the reader to find any source cited in the paper. The references are placed in alphabetical order at the end of the paper. Guidelines for Citations and References Citing Borrowed Material
The references in research papers are usually in the form of a list at the end of the paper. The essential difference between citations and references is that citations lead a reader to the source of information, while references provide the reader with detailed information regarding that particular source. Bibliography in research papers:
The easiest way is to use a reference manager: Paperpile. The citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs. EndNote. Find the style here: output styles overview. Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and others. The style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is ...