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How Do Researchers Collect Data?
There are various ways for researchers to collect data. It is important that this data come from credible sources, as the validity of the research is determined by where it comes from. Keep reading to learn how researchers go about collecting the data for their studies.
One of the best sources that researchers can use to collect data is government websites. Almost everything listed on government websites has been fact checked. To research and collect data from government websites, all you have to do is type “site:gov” in the search box after your search term. For example, if you are wanting to research the benefits of data for the customer experience, you can type “benefits of data for customer experience site:gov” in the search box, and all of the sites listed in the search results are going to come from government websites. All government websites end in .gov.
Much the same as government websites, educational websites are great places to pull credible data from. And just as you use a special search technique to find government websites, you can do the same for educational websites. All you have to do is follow your search term with “.edu.” Using the example above, your search term would be “benefits of data for customer experience site:edu.”
Use the Library
The library is a great place to turn when you are in need of data. At the library, you can use a card catalog to direct your research efforts. Some research materials are available only on film. Make sure to ask the librarian about any microfilm or microfiche film items. The librarian can point you in the direction of the machine that you’ll need to read the information on the films.
Interviews and Surveys
You can always turn to interviews and surveys to collect data for your research. In fact, interviews with real people are one of the best ways to get real data. You can set up research studies to perform interviews.
Use the Internet
In addition to .edu and .gov websites, the other sites on the internet are also a great resource for data. It’s just important that you fact check all of the information that you choose to use. This means that you need to check where the information was pulled from. And if you find that the information was pulled from a source that has another source, it’s essential to check that source as well. The goal is to make sure the data is coming from a source that is legitimate and an expert in the relevant field.
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Activity: Write a research report based on the given data below Topic: Source Cencal Reading and writing. Dayagbil. 2016 p. 145 Title: "School Drop Outs Fact or Fallacy" Methodology Research Method: Descriptive method Respondents: Grade 6 students who stopped schooling Agan Elementary School, a public school in the mountain Barangay of Zamboanga Procedure: Visited the homes of students who dropped out Distributed survey instruments and conducted in-depth interview Results: Students dropped out from school due to the following reasons: school is very far from home no money for school needs too many assignments does not like the teacher _____ Title ______________________ //Hi guys! Pa help naman nito, need ko na talaga. I will be grateful for the answer you can give!! :)//
Goodmorning naapreciate ko lahat ng nagPM sakin at nagcocomply na sa requirements na hindi na inantay mamention ang mga pangalan nila. Uulitin ko, hindi namin kayo pwdeng ipasa sa grade 12 kapag di kayo kumpleto ng mga sagot sa modules nyo at iba pang requirements na pinapapasa namin sayo. Alm nyo yan sa mga sarili nyo kung ano pa ang mga di nyo nagawa at nasubmit. Dalawang buwan na lang tayo kaya tiisin na natin kasi malapit na rin matapos. Lahat ng di nyo nasubmit at di nyo nagawa ay ihabol nyo para lang makumpleto nyo pa. Salamat at magmessage lang kayo sakin kung may concern kayo.
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How To Write A Research Summary
It’s a common perception that writing a research summary is a quick and easy task. After all, how hard can jotting down 300 words be? But when you consider the weight those 300 words carry, writing a research summary as a part of your dissertation, essay or compelling draft for your paper instantly becomes daunting task.
A research summary requires you to synthesize a complex research paper into an informative, self-explanatory snapshot. It needs to portray what your article contains. Thus, writing it often comes at the end of the task list.
Regardless of when you’re planning to write, it is no less of a challenge, particularly if you’re doing it for the first time. This blog will take you through everything you need to know about research summary so that you have an easier time with it.
What is a Research Summary?
A research summary is the part of your research paper that describes its findings to the audience in a brief yet concise manner. A well-curated research summary represents you and your knowledge about the information written in the research paper.
While writing a quality research summary, you need to discover and identify the significant points in the research and condense it in a more straightforward form. A research summary is like a doorway that provides access to the structure of a research paper's sections.
Since the purpose of a summary is to give an overview of the topic, methodology, and conclusions employed in a paper, it requires an objective approach. No analysis or criticism.
Research summary or Abstract. What’s the Difference?
They’re both brief, concise, and give an overview of an aspect of the research paper. So, it’s easy to understand why many new researchers get the two confused. However, a research summary and abstract are two very different things with individual purpose. To start with, a research summary is written at the end while the abstract comes at the beginning of a research paper.
A research summary captures the essence of the paper at the end of your document. It focuses on your topic, methods, and findings. More like a TL;DR, if you will. An abstract, on the other hand, is a description of what your research paper is about. It tells your reader what your topic or hypothesis is, and sets a context around why you have embarked on your research.
Getting Started with a Research Summary
Before you start writing, you need to get insights into your research’s content, style, and organization. There are three fundamental areas of a research summary that you should focus on.
- While deciding the contents of your research summary, you must include a section on its importance as a whole, the techniques, and the tools that were used to formulate the conclusion. Additionally, there needs to be a short but thorough explanation of how the findings of the research paper have a significance.
- To keep the summary well-organized, try to cover the various sections of the research paper in separate paragraphs. Besides, how the idea of particular factual research came up first must be explained in a separate paragraph.
- As a general practice worldwide, research summaries are restricted to 300-400 words. However, if you have chosen a lengthy research paper, try not to exceed the word limit of 10% of the entire research paper.
How to Structure Your Research Summary
The research summary is nothing but a concise form of the entire research paper. Therefore, the structure of a summary stays the same as the paper. So, include all the section titles and write a little about them. The structural elements that a research summary must consist of are:
It represents the topic of the research. Try to phrase it so that it includes the key findings or conclusion of the task.
The abstract gives a context of the research paper. Unlike the abstract at the beginning of a paper, the abstract here, should be very short since you’ll be working with a limited word count.
This is the most crucial section of a research summary as it helps readers get familiarized with the topic. You should include the definition of your topic, the current state of the investigation, and practical relevance in this part. Additionally, you should present the problem statement, investigative measures, and any hypothesis in this section.
This section provides details about the methodology and the methods adopted to conduct the study. You should write a brief description of the surveys, sampling, type of experiments, statistical analysis, and the rationality behind choosing those particular methods.
Create a list of evidence obtained from the various experiments with a primary analysis, conclusions, and interpretations made upon that. In the paper research paper, you will find the results section as the most detailed and lengthy part. Therefore, you must pick up the key elements and wisely decide which elements are worth including and which are worth skipping.
This is where you present the interpretation of results in the context of their application. Discussion usually covers results, inferences, and theoretical models explaining the obtained values, key strengths, and limitations. All of these are vital elements that you must include in the summary.
Most research papers merge conclusion with discussions. However, depending upon the instructions, you may have to prepare this as a separate section in your research summary. Usually, conclusion revisits the hypothesis and provides the details about the validation or denial about the arguments made in the research paper, based upon how convincing the results were obtained.
The structure of a research summary closely resembles the anatomy of a scholarly article . Additionally, you should keep your research and references limited to authentic and scholarly sources only.
Tips for Writing a Research Summary
The core concept behind undertaking a research summary is to present a simple and clear understanding of your research paper to the reader. The biggest hurdle while doing that is the number of words you have at your disposal. So, follow the steps below to write a research summary that sticks.
1. Read the parent paper thoroughly
You should go through the research paper thoroughly multiple times to ensure that you have a complete understanding of its contents. A 3-stage reading process helps.
a. Scan: In the first read, go through it to get an understanding of its basic concept and methodologies.
b. Read: For the second step, read the article attentively by going through each section, highlighting the key elements, and subsequently listing the topics that you will include in your research summary.
c. Skim: Flip through the article a few more times to study the interpretation of various experimental results, statistical analysis, and application in different contexts.
Sincerely go through different headings and subheadings as it will allow you to understand the underlying concept of each section. You can try reading the introduction and conclusion simultaneously to understand the motive of the task and how obtained results stay fit to the expected outcome.
2. Identify the key elements in different sections
While exploring different sections of an article, you can try finding answers to simple what, why, and how. Below are a few pointers to give you an idea:
- What is the research question and how is it addressed?
- Is there a hypothesis in the introductory part?
- What type of methods are being adopted?
- What is the sample size for data collection and how is it being analyzed?
- What are the most vital findings?
- Do the results support the hypothesis?
- What is the final solution to the problem statement?
- What is the explanation for the obtained results?
- What is the drawn inference?
- What are the various limitations of the study?
3. Prepare the first draft
Now that you’ve listed the key points that the paper tries to demonstrate, you can start writing the summary following the standard structure of a research summary. Just make sure you’re not writing statements from the parent research paper verbatim.
Instead, try writing down each section in your own words. This will not only help in avoiding plagiarism but will also show your complete understanding of the subject. Alternatively, you can use a summarizing tool (AI-based summary generators) to shorten the content or summarize the content without disrupting the actual meaning of the article.
SciSpace Copilot is one such helpful feature! You can easily upload your research paper and ask Copilot to summarize it. You will get an AI-generated, condensed research summary. SciSpace Copilot also enables you to highlight text, clip math and tables, and ask any question relevant to the research paper; it will give you instant answers with deeper context of the article..
4. Include visuals
One of the best ways to summarize and consolidate a research paper is to provide visuals like graphs, charts, pie diagrams, etc.. Visuals make getting across the facts, the past trends, and the probabilistic figures around a concept much more engaging.
5. Double check for plagiarism
It can be very tempting to copy-paste a few statements or the entire paragraphs depending upon the clarity of those sections. But it’s best to stay away from the practice. Even paraphrasing should be done with utmost care and attention.
6. Religiously follow the word count limit
You need to have strict control while writing different sections of a research summary. In many cases, it has been observed that the research summary and the parent research paper become the same length. If that happens, it can lead to discrediting of your efforts and research summary itself. Whatever the standard word limit has been imposed, you must observe that carefully.
7. Proofread your research summary multiple times
The process of writing the research summary can be exhausting and tiring. However, you shouldn’t allow this to become a reason to skip checking your academic writing several times for mistakes like misspellings, grammar, wordiness, and formatting issues. Your research summary can stand out from the others, provided it is drafted perfectly on both technicality and comprehension parameters.
8. Watch while you write
Keep a keen observation of your writing style. You should use the words very precisely, and in any situation, it should not represent your personal opinions on the topic. You should write the entire research summary in utmost impersonal, precise, factually correct, and evidence-based writing.
9. Ask a friend/colleague to help
Once you are done with the final copy of your research summary, you must ask a friend or colleague to read it. You must test whether your friend or colleague could grasp everything without referring to the parent paper. This will help you in ensuring the clarity of the article.
Once you become familiar with the research paper summary concept and understand how to apply the tips discussed above in your current task, summarizing a research summary won’t be that challenging. While traversing the different stages of your academic career, you will face different scenarios where you may have to create several research summaries.
In such cases, you just need to look for answers to simple questions like “Why this study is necessary,” “what were the methods,” “who were the participants,” “what conclusions were drawn from the research,” and “how it is relevant to the wider world.” Once you find out the answers to these questions, you can easily create a good research summary following the standard structure and a precise writing style.
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How to Write the Results/Findings Section in Research
What is the research paper Results section and what does it do?
The Results section of a scientific research paper represents the core findings of a study derived from the methods applied to gather and analyze information. It presents these findings in a logical sequence without bias or interpretation from the author, setting up the reader for later interpretation and evaluation in the Discussion section. A major purpose of the Results section is to break down the data into sentences that show its significance to the research question(s).
The Results section appears third in the section sequence in most scientific papers. It follows the presentation of the Methods and Materials and is presented before the Discussion section —although the Results and Discussion are presented together in many journals. This section answers the basic question “What did you find in your research?”
What is included in the Results section?
The Results section should include the findings of your study and ONLY the findings of your study. The findings include:
- Data presented in tables, charts, graphs, and other figures (may be placed into the text or on separate pages at the end of the manuscript)
- A contextual analysis of this data explaining its meaning in sentence form
- All data that corresponds to the central research question(s)
- All secondary findings (secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, etc.)
If the scope of the study is broad, or if you studied a variety of variables, or if the methodology used yields a wide range of different results, the author should present only those results that are most relevant to the research question stated in the Introduction section .
As a general rule, any information that does not present the direct findings or outcome of the study should be left out of this section. Unless the journal requests that authors combine the Results and Discussion sections, explanations and interpretations should be omitted from the Results.
How are the results organized?
The best way to organize your Results section is “logically.” One logical and clear method of organizing research results is to provide them alongside the research questions—within each research question, present the type of data that addresses that research question.
Let’s look at an example. Your research question is based on a survey among patients who were treated at a hospital and received postoperative care. Let’s say your first research question is:
“What do hospital patients over age 55 think about postoperative care?”
This can actually be represented as a heading within your Results section, though it might be presented as a statement rather than a question:
Attitudes towards postoperative care in patients over the age of 55
Now present the results that address this specific research question first. In this case, perhaps a table illustrating data from a survey. Likert items can be included in this example. Tables can also present standard deviations, probabilities, correlation matrices, etc.
Following this, present a content analysis, in words, of one end of the spectrum of the survey or data table. In our example case, start with the POSITIVE survey responses regarding postoperative care, using descriptive phrases. For example:
“Sixty-five percent of patients over 55 responded positively to the question “ Are you satisfied with your hospital’s postoperative care ?” (Fig. 2)
Include other results such as subcategory analyses. The amount of textual description used will depend on how much interpretation of tables and figures is necessary and how many examples the reader needs in order to understand the significance of your research findings.
Next, present a content analysis of another part of the spectrum of the same research question, perhaps the NEGATIVE or NEUTRAL responses to the survey. For instance:
“As Figure 1 shows, 15 out of 60 patients in Group A responded negatively to Question 2.”
After you have assessed the data in one figure and explained it sufficiently, move on to your next research question. For example:
“How does patient satisfaction correspond to in-hospital improvements made to postoperative care?”
This kind of data may be presented through a figure or set of figures (for instance, a paired T-test table).
Explain the data you present, here in a table, with a concise content analysis:
“The p-value for the comparison between the before and after groups of patients was .03% (Fig. 2), indicating that the greater the dissatisfaction among patients, the more frequent the improvements that were made to postoperative care.”
Let’s examine another example of a Results section from a study on plant tolerance to heavy metal stress . In the Introduction section, the aims of the study are presented as “determining the physiological and morphological responses of Allium cepa L. towards increased cadmium toxicity” and “evaluating its potential to accumulate the metal and its associated environmental consequences.” The Results section presents data showing how these aims are achieved in tables alongside a content analysis, beginning with an overview of the findings:
“Cadmium caused inhibition of root and leave elongation, with increasing effects at higher exposure doses (Fig. 1a-c).”
The figure containing this data is cited in parentheses. Note that this author has combined three graphs into one single figure. Separating the data into separate graphs focusing on specific aspects makes it easier for the reader to assess the findings, and consolidating this information into one figure saves space and makes it easy to locate the most relevant results.
Following this overall summary, the relevant data in the tables is broken down into greater detail in text form in the Results section.
- “Results on the bio-accumulation of cadmium were found to be the highest (17.5 mg kgG1) in the bulb, when the concentration of cadmium in the solution was 1×10G2 M and lowest (0.11 mg kgG1) in the leaves when the concentration was 1×10G3 M.”
Captioning and Referencing Tables and Figures
Tables and figures are central components of your Results section and you need to carefully think about the most effective way to use graphs and tables to present your findings . Therefore, it is crucial to know how to write strong figure captions and to refer to them within the text of the Results section.
The most important advice one can give here as well as throughout the paper is to check the requirements and standards of the journal to which you are submitting your work. Every journal has its own design and layout standards, which you can find in the author instructions on the target journal’s website. Perusing a journal’s published articles will also give you an idea of the proper number, size, and complexity of your figures.
Regardless of which format you use, the figures should be placed in the order they are referenced in the Results section and be as clear and easy to understand as possible. If there are multiple variables being considered (within one or more research questions), it can be a good idea to split these up into separate figures. Subsequently, these can be referenced and analyzed under separate headings and paragraphs in the text.
To create a caption, consider the research question being asked and change it into a phrase. For instance, if one question is “Which color did participants choose?”, the caption might be “Color choice by participant group.” Or in our last research paper example, where the question was “What is the concentration of cadmium in different parts of the onion after 14 days?” the caption reads:
“Fig. 1(a-c): Mean concentration of Cd determined in (a) bulbs, (b) leaves, and (c) roots of onions after a 14-day period.”
Steps for Composing the Results Section
Because each study is unique, there is no one-size-fits-all approach when it comes to designing a strategy for structuring and writing the section of a research paper where findings are presented. The content and layout of this section will be determined by the specific area of research, the design of the study and its particular methodologies, and the guidelines of the target journal and its editors. However, the following steps can be used to compose the results of most scientific research studies and are essential for researchers who are new to preparing a manuscript for publication or who need a reminder of how to construct the Results section.
Step 1 : Consult the guidelines or instructions that the target journal or publisher provides authors and read research papers it has published, especially those with similar topics, methods, or results to your study.
- The guidelines will generally outline specific requirements for the results or findings section, and the published articles will provide sound examples of successful approaches.
- Note length limitations on restrictions on content. For instance, while many journals require the Results and Discussion sections to be separate, others do not—qualitative research papers often include results and interpretations in the same section (“Results and Discussion”).
- Reading the aims and scope in the journal’s “ guide for authors ” section and understanding the interests of its readers will be invaluable in preparing to write the Results section.
Step 2 : Consider your research results in relation to the journal’s requirements and catalogue your results.
- Focus on experimental results and other findings that are especially relevant to your research questions and objectives and include them even if they are unexpected or do not support your ideas and hypotheses.
- Catalogue your findings—use subheadings to streamline and clarify your report. This will help you avoid excessive and peripheral details as you write and also help your reader understand and remember your findings. Create appendices that might interest specialists but prove too long or distracting for other readers.
- Decide how you will structure of your results. You might match the order of the research questions and hypotheses to your results, or you could arrange them according to the order presented in the Methods section. A chronological order or even a hierarchy of importance or meaningful grouping of main themes or categories might prove effective. Consider your audience, evidence, and most importantly, the objectives of your research when choosing a structure for presenting your findings.
Step 3 : Design figures and tables to present and illustrate your data.
- Tables and figures should be numbered according to the order in which they are mentioned in the main text of the paper.
- Information in figures should be relatively self-explanatory (with the aid of captions), and their design should include all definitions and other information necessary for readers to understand the findings without reading all of the text.
- Use tables and figures as a focal point to tell a clear and informative story about your research and avoid repeating information. But remember that while figures clarify and enhance the text, they cannot replace it.
Step 4 : Draft your Results section using the findings and figures you have organized.
- The goal is to communicate this complex information as clearly and precisely as possible; precise and compact phrases and sentences are most effective.
- In the opening paragraph of this section, restate your research questions or aims to focus the reader’s attention to what the results are trying to show. It is also a good idea to summarize key findings at the end of this section to create a logical transition to the interpretation and discussion that follows.
- Try to write in the past tense and the active voice to relay the findings since the research has already been done and the agent is usually clear. This will ensure that your explanations are also clear and logical.
- Make sure that any specialized terminology or abbreviation you have used here has been defined and clarified in the Introduction section .
Step 5 : Review your draft; edit and revise until it reports results exactly as you would like to have them reported to your readers.
- Double-check the accuracy and consistency of all the data, as well as all of the visual elements included.
- Read your draft aloud to catch language errors (grammar, spelling, and mechanics), awkward phrases, and missing transitions.
- Ensure that your results are presented in the best order to focus on objectives and prepare readers for interpretations, valuations, and recommendations in the Discussion section . Look back over the paper’s Introduction and background while anticipating the Discussion and Conclusion sections to ensure that the presentation of your results is consistent and effective.
- Consider seeking additional guidance on your paper. Find additional readers to look over your Results section and see if it can be improved in any way. Peers, professors, or qualified experts can provide valuable insights.
One excellent option is to use a professional English proofreading and editing service such as Wordvice, including our paper editing service . With hundreds of qualified editors from dozens of scientific fields, Wordvice has helped thousands of authors revise their manuscripts and get accepted into their target journals. Read more about the proofreading and editing process before proceeding with getting academic editing services and manuscript editing services for your manuscript.
As the representation of your study’s data output, the Results section presents the core information in your research paper. By writing with clarity and conciseness and by highlighting and explaining the crucial findings of their study, authors increase the impact and effectiveness of their research manuscripts.
For more articles and videos on writing your research manuscript, visit Wordvice’s Resources page.
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Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study
- Similar Questions
Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting research and writing a report is common practice for many students and practitioners in any of the behavioral sciences fields.
A research report, which is based on scientific method, is typically composed of the different sections listed below:
- Introduction: The introduction states a specific hypothesis and how that hypothesis was derived by connecting it to previous research.
- Methods: The methods section describes the details of how the hypothesis was tested and clarifies why the study was conducted in that particular way.
- Results: The results section is where the raw uninterpreted data is presented.
- Discussion: The discussion section is where an argument is presented on whether or not the data supports the hypothesis, the possible implications and limitations of the study, as well as possible future directions for this type of research.
Together, these sections should tell the reader what was done, how it was done, and what was learned through the research. You will create a research report based on a hypothetical problem, sample, results, and literature review. Organize your data by creating meaningful sections within your report. Make sure that you:
- Apply key concepts of inferential hypothesis tests.
- Interpret the research findings of the study.
- Examine the assumptions and limitations of inferential tests.
- Develop a practical application of the research principles covered in this course.
Focus of the Research Report
To begin, create a hypothetical research study (you do not have to carry out the study; you will just have to describe it) that is based on the three pieces of information listed below. Once you have your hypothetical study created, write a three- to four-page research report (excluding title and reference pages) that outlines the study. You are encouraged to be creative with your research study, but be sure to follow the format outlined below and adhere to APA formatting as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
Your hypothetical research study should be based on the following information:
- Recent research has indicated that eating chocolate can improve memory. Jones and Wilson (2011) found that eating chocolate two hours before taking math tests improved scores significantly. Wong, Hideki, Anderson, and Skaarsgard (2009) found that women are better than men on memory tests after eating chocolate.
- There were 50 men and 50 women who were randomly selected from a larger population.
- A t -test was conducted to compare men and women’s performance on an assessment after eating chocolate. The results showed an independent t -test value of t .05(99) = 3.43; p
Your research study must contain the following:
- Title of your report
- Introduce the research topic, explain why it is important, and present the purpose of the paper and the research question and hypothesis.
- Discuss how this study is related to other research on the topic.
- Elaborate on the information from the references you were given. State how they relate to your hypothesis.
- Your introduction must:
- Consist of a paragraph explaining what you are studying and why. Use previously cited research to explain your expectations and discuss how those expectations led to your hypothesis.
- State a clear and testable hypothesis and whether it is one-tailed or two-tailed. Make sure it is understandable to someone who has not read the rest of your paper yet. State the null hypothesis.
- Include a justification of the direction of your hypothesis. In other words, explain why you chose the direction of your hypothesis if it is one-tailed (e.g., previous research suggests that people with big feet are more likely to score higher on math tests; therefore the hypothesis is one-tailed) or if it is two-tailed (e.g., previous research is not clear on which group will perform better; therefore, the hypothesis is two-tailed).
- Describe why this study is important.
- Design: State the experimental design of your study, the independent and dependent variables, and what the task was (e.g., what you had the participants do).
- Participants: Identify and describe your sample, how the participants were selected to be in the study, and why you chose them. Provide details for how each individual was assigned to each group.
- Procedure: Describe the precise procedure you used to conduct this research (i.e., exactly what you did). It should be clear enough that anyone could replicate your study. This is the subsection where you tell the reader how you collected the data.
- Data Analysis: Describe the statistical procedure used in the study to analyze the data.
- Results : In this section, you will describe the statistical results:
- State the statistical tests that were used.
- Justify the choice of test.
- State the observed value and significance level and whether the test was one or two-tailed.
- State your conclusion in terms of the hypothesis.
- Did you accept or reject the null hypothesis?
- Discussion : Discuss your results as they relate to your hypothesis.
- Did you accept the hypothesis or reject it?
- Compare your results to the previous studies mentioned in the introduction. Are your results similar or different? Discuss why.
- Tell the readers what your findings mean. Why did you get the results you did?
- Identify limitations to your study.
- Suggest ways your study could be improved.
- Suggest ideas for future research, not just a continuation of your study, but research that is similar to this study. Perhaps one of the variables could be changed or a different sample could be investigated.
- Finish with a concluding paragraph that is a statement of your findings and the key points of the discussion.
- Conclusion : Write a paragraph detailing your experience with writing a research report. Discuss how easy/difficult it was to write a false report that reads like real results, and how this experience might affect you review research in the future. Do you think this experience will provide you with a useful skill in your potential career?
- References : You will create a minimum of three fictitious references in the following format based on the information you have created in the preceding sections of the report:
- Author, A., & Author, B. (Publication year). Title of the article. Journal Name, volume number (issue number), page numbers.
- Example: Jones, A., & Williams, B. (2013). Why monkeys are good pets. Journal of Silly Science, 23 (4) , pp. 221-222.
You may access the Critical Thinking Community website for tips on how to formulate your report in a logical and meaningful manner.
Writing the Research Report
- Must be three to four double-spaced pages in length (excluding title and reference pages) and formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include a title page with the following:
- Title of paper
- Student’s name
- Course name and number
- Instructor’s name
- Date submitted
- Must document all sources in APA style, as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
- Must include the sections with the appropriate headings and content listed above.
- Must include a separate reference page, formatted according to APA style as outlined in the Ashford Writing Center.
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Research Report To complete the following assignment, go to this week's Assignment link in the left navigation. Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting …
Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting research and writing a report is common practice for many students and practitioners in any of the …
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Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting research and writing a report is common practice for many students and practitioners in any of the behavioral sciences …
hypothetical research study
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Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting research and writing a report is common practice for many students and practitioners in any …
Hypothetical Research study
Hypothetical research study.
Write a research report based on a hypothetical research study. Conducting research and writing a report is common practice for many students and practitioners in any of the behavioral …
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Research Writing ~ How to Write a Research Paper
- Choosing A Topic
- Critical Thinking
- Domain Names
- Starting Your Research
- Writing Tips
- Parts of the Paper
- Edit & Rewrite
Papers should have a beginning, a middle, and an end. Your introductory paragraph should grab the reader's attention, state your main idea and how you will support it. The body of the paper should expand on what you have stated in the introduction. Finally, the conclusion restates the paper's thesis and should explain what you have learned, giving a wrap up of your main ideas.
1. The Title The title should be specific and indicate the theme of the research and what ideas it addresses. Use keywords that help explain your paper's topic to the reader. Try to avoid abbreviations and jargon. Think about keywords that people would use to search for your paper and include them in your title.
2. The Abstract The abstract is used by readers to get a quick overview of your paper. Typically, they are about 200 words in length (120 words minimum to 250 words maximum). The abstract should introduce the topic and thesis, and should provide a general statement about what you have found in your research. The abstract allows you to mention each major aspect of you topic and helps readers decide whether they want to read the rest of the paper. Because it is a summary of the entire research paper, it is often written last.
3. The Introduction The introduction should be designed to attract the reader's attention and explain the focus of the research. You will introduce your overview of the topic, your main points of information, and why this subject is important. You can introduce the current understanding and background information about the topic. Toward the end of the introduction, you add your thesis statement, and explain how you will provide information to support your research questions. This provides the purpose, focus, and structure for the rest of the paper.
4. Thesis Statement Most papers will have a thesis statement or main idea and supporting facts/ideas/arguments. State your main idea (something of interest or something to be proven or argued for or against) as your thesis statement, and then provide supporting facts and arguments. A thesis statement is a declarative sentence that asserts the position a paper will be taking. It also points toward the paper's development. This statement should be both specific and arguable. Generally, the thesis statement will be placed at the end of the first paragraph of your paper. The remainder of your paper will support this thesis.
Students often learn to write a thesis as a first step in the writing process, but often, after research, a writers viewpoint may change. Therefore a thesis statement may be one of the final steps in writing.
Examples of thesis statements from Purdue OWL. . .
5. The Literature Review The purpose of the literature review is to describe past important research and how it specifically relates to the research thesis. It should be a synthesis of the previous literature and the new idea being researched. The review should examine the major theories related to the topic to date and their contributors. It should include all relevant findings from credible sources, such as academic books and peer-reviewed journal articles. You will want to:
- Explain how the literature helps the researcher understand the topic.
- Try to show connections and any disparities between the literature.
- Identify new ways to interpret prior research.
- Reveal any gaps that exist in the literature.
More about writing a literature review. . . from The Writing Center at UNC-Chapel Hill More about summarizing. . . from the Center for Writing Studies at the University of Illinois-Urbana Champaign
6. The Discussion The purpose of the discussion is to interpret and describe what you have learned from your research. Make the reader understand why your topic is important. The discussion should always demonstrate what you have learned from your readings (and viewings) and how that learning has made the topic evolve, especially from the short description of main points in the introduction. Explain any new understanding or insights you have had after reading your articles and/or books. Paragraphs should use transitioning sentences to develop how one paragraph idea leads to the next. The discussion will always connect to the introduction, your thesis statement, and the literature you reviewed, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction. You want to:
- Demonstrate critical thinking, not just reporting back facts that you gathered.
- If possible, tell how the topic has evolved over the past and give it's implications for the future.
- Fully explain your main ideas with supporting information.
- Explain why your thesis is correct giving arguments to counter points.
7. The Conclusion A concluding paragraph is a brief summary of your main ideas and restates the paper's main thesis, giving the reader the sense that the stated goal of the paper has been accomplished. What have you learned by doing this research that you didn't know before? What conclusions have you drawn? You may also want to suggest further areas of study, improvement of research possibilities, etc. to demonstrate your critical thinking regarding your research.
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Want to Write a Field Study Report? 6 Key Points to Consider!
Research conduction is not just limited to your laboratory, library, or work place setting. As part of your research you may have to step out in the field (any place other than your regular research lab or work station) to collect raw data for analysis and then publish it as a field study report. In this article, we will discuss the elements of a field study report and the key points to consider while writing one!
Table of Contents
What is a Field Study Report?
A field study report is defined as a documentation of analysis of particular phenomena, behaviors, processes based on theories and observations made by the researcher in the field. These observed and analyzed theories are used to identify solutions for a specific project or case report .
What is the Importance of Field Study Report?
- A field study report is important as part of many operational and technical documentation processes in various industries including field services, education, medicine, and management.
- Moreover, it gives detailed information of an observed subject or specimen which is used to analyze and compare data against a theoretical framework .
- It also helps in identifying challenges in implementing solutions to form a standardized protocol.
- Furthermore, it helps in capturing information on resource management and discovering new processes for effective and optimized solutions.
How to Write Field Research Notes?
A field study report begins with an idea and ends with a solution. Hence, while conducting field research, one must follow a planned route of taking notes for proper documentation of the observations made. A successful field study report begins when the researcher is involved in the observational research process of taking proper notes.
Based on the methods, the field research notes are categorized in four different types:
1. Job Notes:
- Researchers use this method of taking field notes whilst they are conducting the study.
- These notes are taken in close proximity and in open sight with the study’s subject.
- These notes are brief, concise, in the form that can be built on by the researcher later while creating the report.
2. Field Notes Proper:
- This method of taking field notes is to expand them immediately after the completion of study.
- These notes are detailed and the words have to be as close to the terms that will be used in the final field study report.
3. Methodological Notes:
- This type of field notes involve research methods used by the researcher, newly proposed research methods, and the way to monitor their progress.
- Methodological notes are either attached with field notes or filed separately. These notes are always placed at the end of the field study report.
4. Journals and Diaries:
- This method of taking notes is an insight into the researcher’s life as it tracks all aspects of the researcher’s life.
- It helps in eliminating any bias that may have affected the field research.
Examples of Things to Document During Field Study
1. Physical Setting:
Observe the characteristics of the space where the study is being conducted.
2. Objects and Material:
The presence, placement, and arrangement of objects that affect the behavior of the subject being studied.
3. Language Used:
Observe the language being used by study participants (in case of human participation).
4. Behavior Cycles:
Document who is performing what behavior at what time and situation.
5. Physical Characteristics of Participants/Subjects:
Observe and note personal characteristics of subjects.
6. Body Movements:
Things such as body posture or facial expressions and assess if these movements support or contradict the language used while communicating.
Data Collection in Field Report (Sampling Techniques)
Data collection process in field study is also known as sampling. It refers to the process used to select a portion of the population for study. Selection of an ideal sampling technique is imperative to obtain the richest possible source of information to answer the research questions.
Different Types of Sampling Techniques:
Ad Libitum Sampling
This technique involves observing whatever seems interesting at the moment. It does not follow an organized system of recording the observations.
This sampling technique involves watching the entire group of subjects and recording each occurrence of a specific behavior of interest with reference to which individuals were involved.
This sampling technique includes recording of frequencies, durations, and latencies in a continuous and systematic pattern.
The focal sampling technique involves observing one individual/subject for a specified amount of time and recording all instances of that individual’s behavior.
The technique of instantaneous sampling involves dividing observation sessions into short intervals by sample points.
The one-zero sampling technique is similar to instantaneous sampling. It involves recording only if the behaviors of interest have occurred at any time during an interval instead of at the instant of the sampling point.
The scan sampling technique involves taking a census of the entire observed group at predetermined time periods and recording what each individual is doing at that moment.
What is the Structure and Writing Style of Field Study Report?
A field study report does not have a standard format; however, the following factors determined its structure and writing style:
- Nature of research problem
- Theoretical perspective that drives the analysis
- Observations made by researcher
- Specific guidelines established by your professor/supervisor
A field study report includes 6 main elements as follows:
The introduction section should describe the objective and important theories or concepts underpinning your field study. More importantly, it should describe the organization’s nature or setting where you are conducting the observation—the types of observations conducted, the focus of your research study, what was observed, and which methods were used for collecting the data. Furthermore, it is important to include a review of pertinent literature .
2. Description of Activities
It becomes imperative for researchers to provide the information to the readers about what happened during the field study. Hence, you must include the details of all events that take place during your field research.
The description section helps in answering the five “WH” questions as mentioned below:
What did you see and hear in your area of study?
Where does the background information of the research setting is observed and reported?
Why are you conducting this field research?,
The reason behind particular thing happening , and
Why have you included or excluded specific information?
Who are the participants in terms of gender, age, ethnicity, and other relevant variables from your observation?
When is the study being conducted (day or time when occurring actions are observed and noted)?
3. Analysis and Interpretation
While you are on the field conducting the study, you are likely to observe multiple things. However, it is up to you as to which observations do you want to interpret and record in the report. This allows you to show the reader that you are interpreting events like an informed observer. Furthermore, your theoretical framework helps you in making this decision. The analysis and interpretation of your field observations must always be placed in the larger context of the theories described in the introduction.
Some questions to ask yourself when analyzing your observations are as follows:
- What is the meaning of your observations?
- What are the reasons behind the occurrence of the things you observed?
- How typical or widespread are the events and behaviors of the things you observed?
- Are there any connections or patterns in your observations?
- What are the implications of your observations?
- Did your observations match the objective of your study?
- What were the merits of your observations?
- What were the strengths and weaknesses of your recorded observations?
- Are there any connections between your findings and the findings from pertinent literature?
- Do your observations fit into the larger context of the study’s theories?
4. Conclusion and Recommendations
The conclusion of your field study report should summarize your report and emphasize the importance of your observations. This section has to be concise and relevant to your field study and must not include any new information. Furthermore, it is imperative to highlight any recommendations that you may have for readers to consider while conducting similar study. Additionally, describe any unanticipated problems you encountered and note the limitations of your study. Limit your conclusion to around two to three paragraphs.
The reference section must include every source that you referred to and used while writing your field study report. Since format for writing references may differ for every university, you must consult your professor to understand the format and write it accordingly.
This section includes information that is not essential to explain your findings, but supports your analysis [especially repetitive or lengthy information]. It validates your conclusions and contextualize a related point. This helps the reader to understand the overall field study report.
6 Key Points to Consider While Writing a Field Study Report
A field study report focuses on factual and observational details of a project case. It must help the reader understand how theory applies to real-world scenarios. Hence, it should cover the circumstances and contributing factors to derive conclusive results from the observed and collated raw data.
Below are the key points to consider while writing a field study report:
1. Define the Objective of Your Field Report
- Ensure that you state the purpose of your field study report clearly.
- Determine the focus of your study and provide the relevant information.
- Define the setting of observations, and the methods used to collect data.
2. Construct a Theoretical Framework
- Creating a theoretical framework helps you in garnering information based on statistics, news, and pertinent literature for better understanding.
- Additionally, it guides you in determining the data that need to be analyzed and set as a baseline for comparison to acquire necessary information.
3. Record Study Observations and Analysis
- Take notes of your observations based on the defined scope of work (SOW).
- Furthermore, achieve and record the detailed plan on how to achieve the set objectives.
4. Include Photo Evidence of Observed Items
- Validate gathered raw data with photographs or videos as evidences.
- This increases the authenticity of your report and the conclusions you derive from it.
5. Record Overall Assessment and Recommendations
- Document all the observed aspects of your study based on gathered analysis and observations.
- Furthermore, clearly explain the observations and discuss the challenges and limitations faced by you while conducting the study.
6. Validate the Observations with a Signature
- After completing your research and documenting it, it is important to declare who is responsible for the reported data.
- Additionally, you must validate your findings in the field study report by signing off with a digital signature at the end of the report.
Did you every try writing a field study report? How difficult or easy was it? What methods do you follow while writing a field report? Let us know about it in the comments section below!
very well written….the enumeration is really commendable dear Bhosale…sweet regards from Nepal..
Very well explained and detailed. The information was relevant to my research. thanks
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