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Sat / act prep online guides and tips, 113 great research paper topics.
One of the hardest parts of writing a research paper can be just finding a good topic to write about. Fortunately we've done the hard work for you and have compiled a list of 113 interesting research paper topics. They've been organized into ten categories and cover a wide range of subjects so you can easily find the best topic for you.
In addition to the list of good research topics, we've included advice on what makes a good research paper topic and how you can use your topic to start writing a great paper.
What Makes a Good Research Paper Topic?
Not all research paper topics are created equal, and you want to make sure you choose a great topic before you start writing. Below are the three most important factors to consider to make sure you choose the best research paper topics.
#1: It's Something You're Interested In
A paper is always easier to write if you're interested in the topic, and you'll be more motivated to do in-depth research and write a paper that really covers the entire subject. Even if a certain research paper topic is getting a lot of buzz right now or other people seem interested in writing about it, don't feel tempted to make it your topic unless you genuinely have some sort of interest in it as well.
#2: There's Enough Information to Write a Paper
Even if you come up with the absolute best research paper topic and you're so excited to write about it, you won't be able to produce a good paper if there isn't enough research about the topic. This can happen for very specific or specialized topics, as well as topics that are too new to have enough research done on them at the moment. Easy research paper topics will always be topics with enough information to write a full-length paper.
Trying to write a research paper on a topic that doesn't have much research on it is incredibly hard, so before you decide on a topic, do a bit of preliminary searching and make sure you'll have all the information you need to write your paper.
#3: It Fits Your Teacher's Guidelines
Don't get so carried away looking at lists of research paper topics that you forget any requirements or restrictions your teacher may have put on research topic ideas. If you're writing a research paper on a health-related topic, deciding to write about the impact of rap on the music scene probably won't be allowed, but there may be some sort of leeway. For example, if you're really interested in current events but your teacher wants you to write a research paper on a history topic, you may be able to choose a topic that fits both categories, like exploring the relationship between the US and North Korea. No matter what, always get your research paper topic approved by your teacher first before you begin writing.
113 Good Research Paper Topics
Below are 113 good research topics to help you get you started on your paper. We've organized them into ten categories to make it easier to find the type of research paper topics you're looking for.
- Discuss the main differences in art from the Italian Renaissance and the Northern Renaissance .
- Analyze the impact a famous artist had on the world.
- How is sexism portrayed in different types of media (music, film, video games, etc.)? Has the amount/type of sexism changed over the years?
- How has the music of slaves brought over from Africa shaped modern American music?
- How has rap music evolved in the past decade?
- How has the portrayal of minorities in the media changed?
- What have been the impacts of China's one child policy?
- How have the goals of feminists changed over the decades?
- How has the Trump presidency changed international relations?
- Analyze the history of the relationship between the United States and North Korea.
- What factors contributed to the current decline in the rate of unemployment?
- What have been the impacts of states which have increased their minimum wage?
- How do US immigration laws compare to immigration laws of other countries?
- How have the US's immigration laws changed in the past few years/decades?
- How has the Black Lives Matter movement affected discussions and view about racism in the US?
- What impact has the Affordable Care Act had on healthcare in the US?
- What factors contributed to the UK deciding to leave the EU (Brexit)?
- What factors contributed to China becoming an economic power?
- Discuss the history of Bitcoin or other cryptocurrencies (some of which tokenize the S&P 500 Index on the blockchain) .
- Do students in schools that eliminate grades do better in college and their careers?
- Do students from wealthier backgrounds score higher on standardized tests?
- Do students who receive free meals at school get higher grades compared to when they weren't receiving a free meal?
- Do students who attend charter schools score higher on standardized tests than students in public schools?
- Do students learn better in same-sex classrooms?
- How does giving each student access to an iPad or laptop affect their studies?
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Montessori Method ?
- Do children who attend preschool do better in school later on?
- What was the impact of the No Child Left Behind act?
- How does the US education system compare to education systems in other countries?
- What impact does mandatory physical education classes have on students' health?
- Which methods are most effective at reducing bullying in schools?
- Do homeschoolers who attend college do as well as students who attended traditional schools?
- Does offering tenure increase or decrease quality of teaching?
- How does college debt affect future life choices of students?
- Should graduate students be able to form unions?
- What are different ways to lower gun-related deaths in the US?
- How and why have divorce rates changed over time?
- Is affirmative action still necessary in education and/or the workplace?
- Should physician-assisted suicide be legal?
- How has stem cell research impacted the medical field?
- How can human trafficking be reduced in the United States/world?
- Should people be able to donate organs in exchange for money?
- Which types of juvenile punishment have proven most effective at preventing future crimes?
- Has the increase in US airport security made passengers safer?
- Analyze the immigration policies of certain countries and how they are similar and different from one another.
- Several states have legalized recreational marijuana. What positive and negative impacts have they experienced as a result?
- Do tariffs increase the number of domestic jobs?
- Which prison reforms have proven most effective?
- Should governments be able to censor certain information on the internet?
- Which methods/programs have been most effective at reducing teen pregnancy?
- What are the benefits and drawbacks of the Keto diet?
- How effective are different exercise regimes for losing weight and maintaining weight loss?
- How do the healthcare plans of various countries differ from each other?
- What are the most effective ways to treat depression ?
- What are the pros and cons of genetically modified foods?
- Which methods are most effective for improving memory?
- What can be done to lower healthcare costs in the US?
- What factors contributed to the current opioid crisis?
- Analyze the history and impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic .
- Are low-carbohydrate or low-fat diets more effective for weight loss?
- How much exercise should the average adult be getting each week?
- Which methods are most effective to get parents to vaccinate their children?
- What are the pros and cons of clean needle programs?
- How does stress affect the body?
- Discuss the history of the conflict between Israel and the Palestinians.
- What were the causes and effects of the Salem Witch Trials?
- Who was responsible for the Iran-Contra situation?
- How has New Orleans and the government's response to natural disasters changed since Hurricane Katrina?
- What events led to the fall of the Roman Empire?
- What were the impacts of British rule in India ?
- Was the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki necessary?
- What were the successes and failures of the women's suffrage movement in the United States?
- What were the causes of the Civil War?
- How did Abraham Lincoln's assassination impact the country and reconstruction after the Civil War?
- Which factors contributed to the colonies winning the American Revolution?
- What caused Hitler's rise to power?
- Discuss how a specific invention impacted history.
- What led to Cleopatra's fall as ruler of Egypt?
- How has Japan changed and evolved over the centuries?
- What were the causes of the Rwandan genocide ?
- Why did Martin Luther decide to split with the Catholic Church?
- Analyze the history and impact of a well-known cult (Jonestown, Manson family, etc.)
- How did the sexual abuse scandal impact how people view the Catholic Church?
- How has the Catholic church's power changed over the past decades/centuries?
- What are the causes behind the rise in atheism/ agnosticism in the United States?
- What were the influences in Siddhartha's life resulted in him becoming the Buddha?
- How has media portrayal of Islam/Muslims changed since September 11th?
- How has the earth's climate changed in the past few decades?
- How has the use and elimination of DDT affected bird populations in the US?
- Analyze how the number and severity of natural disasters have increased in the past few decades.
- Analyze deforestation rates in a certain area or globally over a period of time.
- How have past oil spills changed regulations and cleanup methods?
- How has the Flint water crisis changed water regulation safety?
- What are the pros and cons of fracking?
- What impact has the Paris Climate Agreement had so far?
- What have NASA's biggest successes and failures been?
- How can we improve access to clean water around the world?
- Does ecotourism actually have a positive impact on the environment?
- Should the US rely on nuclear energy more?
- What can be done to save amphibian species currently at risk of extinction?
- What impact has climate change had on coral reefs?
- How are black holes created?
- Are teens who spend more time on social media more likely to suffer anxiety and/or depression?
- How will the loss of net neutrality affect internet users?
- Analyze the history and progress of self-driving vehicles.
- How has the use of drones changed surveillance and warfare methods?
- Has social media made people more or less connected?
- What progress has currently been made with artificial intelligence ?
- Do smartphones increase or decrease workplace productivity?
- What are the most effective ways to use technology in the classroom?
- How is Google search affecting our intelligence?
- When is the best age for a child to begin owning a smartphone?
- Has frequent texting reduced teen literacy rates?
How to Write a Great Research Paper
Even great research paper topics won't give you a great research paper if you don't hone your topic before and during the writing process. Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers.
#1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early
Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper. Every sentence in your research paper will relate back to your thesis, so you don't want to start writing without it!
As some examples, if you're writing a research paper on if students learn better in same-sex classrooms, your thesis might be "Research has shown that elementary-age students in same-sex classrooms score higher on standardized tests and report feeling more comfortable in the classroom."
If you're writing a paper on the causes of the Civil War, your thesis might be "While the dispute between the North and South over slavery is the most well-known cause of the Civil War, other key causes include differences in the economies of the North and South, states' rights, and territorial expansion."
#2: Back Every Statement Up With Research
Remember, this is a research paper you're writing, so you'll need to use lots of research to make your points. Every statement you give must be backed up with research, properly cited the way your teacher requested. You're allowed to include opinions of your own, but they must also be supported by the research you give.
#3: Do Your Research Before You Begin Writing
You don't want to start writing your research paper and then learn that there isn't enough research to back up the points you're making, or, even worse, that the research contradicts the points you're trying to make!
Get most of your research on your good research topics done before you begin writing. Then use the research you've collected to create a rough outline of what your paper will cover and the key points you're going to make. This will help keep your paper clear and organized, and it'll ensure you have enough research to produce a strong paper.
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Christine graduated from Michigan State University with degrees in Environmental Biology and Geography and received her Master's from Duke University. In high school she scored in the 99th percentile on the SAT and was named a National Merit Finalist. She has taught English and biology in several countries.
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115 Observation Essay Topics: Ideas To Get You Started
Assignments on observation essays look cheap on the surface, but tough tendons and hard bones to crack always lie beneath. Most students will therefore write such papers and score low grades easily. However, having an expert aid will act as your third eye and help you write a top-rated paper without sweating. We will explore the following aspects in this article:
Definition of an observation essay How to write a top-class observation essay 115 observation essay writing ideas for your success
With this full package, you will have no worries completing your next observation essay assignment. Our quality homework help will enable you to write an outstanding paper and give you every insight you need to complete observation essays.
Hold fast as we unpack this step by step!
What Is An Observation Essay?
It is an academic paper that presents a clear image of a circumstance or an event focusing on a particular object described in detail. The student will have to closely watch a group, person, or event in detail before writing this kind of paper. Some of the elements of an observation essay include:
It is written in the first person It accounts of historical events witnessed by the author It is written in a descriptive tone
Such a paper includes a detailed narration of the mood, theme, and scenery. Typically, an observation essay runs up to 1500 words or more. Through an observation essay, a reader will be able to get a first-hand account of an event. It is one of the liveliest essays due to the vivid description used.
How To Write An Observation Essay
When your professor assigns you an observation essay, there are specific elements he expects to see before awarding you top grades. The standard format for a high school or college observation essay is as follows:
- Select an interesting topic idea: There are various subjects to choose from that should interest you and your potential readership. The secret is first to observe the events or person you intend to write on before settling on one topic. You can choose to write about feelings, sounds or sights.
- Write a captivating introduction: The purpose of the intro is to grab your reader’s attention within the first two or three sentences. Think of a strong and appealing intro that will hook the reader to your paper within the introduction. Begin by stating the general idea and then describe it in different aspects. Choosing the right words for this section matters a lot as it affects how you will frame your body paragraphs.
- State a clear and informed thesis statement: This is always the last sentence of the introduction paragraph. It provides an evaluation or a summary of the observation essay. Remember that it should also align with the purpose and goal of your overall essay.
- Expound on the essay: Now, unpack your essay using topic sentences, explanations, and relevant examples. The body paragraphs will enable the reader to understand the main concept behind the essay and get a clear picture of it. Always maintain a logical flow with clear transitions and natural breaks. Do not stuff too much content in one paragraph.
- Conclude your observation essay in style: After discussing the major points in the body paragraphs, it is time to summarize them and give a concluding remark. You can also include any extra information but do not add any new ideas at this stage.
Once your essay is complete, you should proofread and edit it using the best eyes possible. You can give it to a friend to help you identify any potential areas that need correction or spicing. Remember, your teacher will receive over 30 essays, and only that which impresses him the most will get the best grades. Do not leave anything to chance. If you are not too sure about how you’re going to make it, you can request for help from one of “ my homework done ” experts.
Now let’s explore some custom observation essay writing ideas from our high-quality homework helper.
Easy Observation Essay Topics
- Thoughts on paternity and maternity leaves from work
- Should college students carry laptops and mobile phones to school?
- Does online help guarantee the success of students in an essay?
- Is it secure to use Wi-Fi available in a shopping mall?
- Are cheap things always expensive in the end?
- Are all ENL writers capable of producing great essays?
- Should persons who use laptops the most wear glasses?
- Thoughts on drinking water after running
- Should you listen to music while walking down a street?
- What is the best time to read a long and complex novel?
- Yoga as a self-healing therapy
- How does music affect what one thinks or does?
- How I managed my first academic test in high school
- Is patience a virtue everyone possesses?
- Do tattoos and piercings make someone look classy?
- Effects of fashion trends on college students in the US
- Restaurants and their effects on family time
- Why honesty is not an easy virtue to attain
- Should all people invite to a birthday carry presents?
Awesome Observation Research Topics
- Are all students who take computer science introverts?
- Thoughts on competency versus performance-based curriculum
- Are fathers exemplary leaders by nature?
- How do movie stars affect people’s perception of reality?
- Does age affect one’s affinity for books and reading?
- What is a perfect gift for a wedding anniversary?
- Do video games encourage crime and aggressive behavior?
- Should teenagers start working after they join college?
- How do you feel when you succeed at a technical task?
- Does the outfit of a medical practitioner affect a patient’s recovery rate?
- Are all first-time flights emotional and full of nervousness?
- Do deadlines make one work better or out of pressure?
- Effects of watching television for too long on mental health
- Is social media changing people’s perception of reality?
- What is your take on the isolation and mandatory quarantine restrictions?
- Do short paragraphs encourage readers to read more?
Fun Observation Essay Writing Prompts
- Are gents more charming than ladies?
- What do you feel about dating an older person?
- Do vacations leave the most unforgettable moments in a person’s life?
- How easy is it for teenagers in a relationship to break up?
- Is WhatsApp the best option for teenage relationships?
- Thoughts on the effects of Tik-Tok on teenage behavior
- Does the mode of dressing reflect the kind of lifestyle one is living?
- Is it advisable to tolerate unruly behavior from adolescents?
- Do teenagers spend much of their money on unnecessary priorities?
- Are freedom and independence exaggerated among the youth?
- How music affects one’s rate of completing a particular task
- The necessity of sports in developing an outgoing behavior
- Do persons with talent and skill perform better than those with papers?
- Why staying in a crowded neighborhood may affect your peace of mind
- Does reading too much make one an expert in a given niche?
- How events and occasions dictate the mode of dressing
Good Observational Study Topics For Top Students
- Do people who eat too much suffer from memory loss?
- Does customer support affect the people’s perception of a company?
- Has coronavirus made people more careful and suspicious of others?
- Religion and its effect on morality
- Effects of media representation on societal views
- How does cycling affect one’s emotional well-being?
- Is it dangerous to walk alone at night in Africa?
- The effects of myths and misconceptions on development in Africa
- How the modern world is changing people’s attitudes towards life
- The role of academic research on one’s critical thinking skills
- Women and leadership in the society
- The growing need for therapists in the world
- Why data science is necessary in the modern technological world
- How free offerings affect one’s productivity level
- Effects of death on the lifestyle of the bereaved
- Online jobs and their effect on interactive behavior
Fast Observation Essay Topics For College
- How going to the gym affects one’s diet
- Does participation in an event always show one’s interest in it?
- Effects of personal views on accepting criticism
- Why most people do not take in strangers immediately
- The role of parental love on child development
- How social values shape a society’s cohesiveness
- Do yoga classes always guarantee to heal from mental problems?
- How long should one observe something before concluding?
- Why blending classroom and outside learning is necessary
- Effects of various teaching approaches on the students
- Thoughts on a courtroom attire
- Are argumentative essays longer than persuasive papers?
- The role of routine on one’s productivity level
- How mentors shape the development of a person in a certain field
- Effects of looking for a job without success for a long time
- How color affects people’s moods and feelings
Quality Topics For Observation Essay
- Does studying abroad affect one’s social status?
- The relationship between one’s behavior and upbringing
- How branding increases a company’s sales
- How do plays imprint messages on people’s minds?
- Effects of weather conditions on people’s choices and preferences of clothes
- Do templates and samples make people lazy to think creatively?
- Effects of exaggeration on the reality of a story
- How a narrator affects the reception and perception of a story
- Effects of romantic movies on relationships
- Thoughts on human experiences that shape their destinies
- The relationship between a day’s activities and dreams
- How do human characters make a story more relatable?
- The role of statistics in planning and implementing strategies
- Do custom essays reflect the writing styles of students?
- How past experiences affect future decisions
- Thoughts on the outcomes of subjective versus objective decisions
Child Observation Essay Topics
- Effects of environment on the psychological and physical development of children
- The role of cultural factors in child development
- How difficult upbringings affect a child’s mental behavior
- Differences between children brought up by their fathers and those brought up by their mothers
- How a parent’s personality traits affect a child’s upbringing
- The role of education on childhood development
- How gender roles shape the development of a child
- Evaluate crises that occur during childhood cognitive development
- How parent absenteeism affects the development of a child
- Effective strategies for assessing child development
- How television influences a child’s communication ability
- Factors that affect social learning in child development
- What causes aggression among children in the early stages?
- Discuss antipathy and empathy in child development
- Low-income families and child development
- How single parenthood affects child development
Homework Helpers For Hire
There are numerous observation essay topics you can choose from to ace your paper. Those who want to excel should try out these writing prompts today and see their effect. Our customer support is on standby to offer you any urgent assistance. We thrive on offering the best observation essay help with top-notch ENL writers. Contact us with a message “ do my homework for money ” today and get a 100% original paper fast!
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Best Observation Essay Topics in 2023
What Is an Observation Essay?
Observation Essay is direct research. This means that a person is engaged in the observation of some event, person or phenomenon, analyzes, and takes notes immediately. So, this is an essay about your observation of a research subject. This type of essay will allow the reader to perceive the subject of research as if he did it by himself. That is why it is very important to take notes and describe everything that you see in detail.
Observation papers can be a problem for students because often they do not know how to write them. They are not familiar with this essay format, and they do not know how to choose observation essay topics.
In fact, it is not as difficult as it seems, especially if you have an interest in your topic. But if you have problems with observational writing, this should not be an obstacle for you to get a good grade. You can always ask to do my homework for me services on the website. Professional writers of this service will write a quality paper for you very quickly. Homeworkfor.me will write any kind of paper for you, whether it is an essay on marketing project ideas or a historical assignment or whatever you want.
How to Write an Observation Paper
To understand how to write an observation paper, you need an outline your actions and follow them step by step.
Perhaps this stage is the most difficult. You need to come up with an idea for your paper and do not use old and hackneyed topics. This step can be difficult because you need to choose a topic that you understand well or that is of great interest to you.
If it is extremely difficult for you to choose a topic, you can consult with your teacher and find out what observational study ideas he or she considers interesting. Perhaps this will lead you to your own idea. Find out what topics students are most interested in, and you will know in which direction you need to think.
Your topic should allow you to engage your senses. The reader must have an opportunity to “see” your experience as his own. You must describe what you see, and also smells, tastes, sounds.
What Should Introduction Be?
So, you have chosen a topic. What’s next? If you start right away with a description of your observation, the work will not attract the readers. First, the readers should briefly learn about the topic of your research. This means that you need to write an introduction.
You can give a short description of your essay, explain the main idea of your observation. You also need to understand that an introduction is a part that should catch the attention. At this stage, the readers will decide whether your work is worth reading.
Try to arouse their interest in your topic. You can write a sentence in the format of a question for the readers or your personal statement. To do this, you need to intrigue the reader by adding a couple of interesting facts in the introductory part.
How Should It Look Like?
You wrote an introduction and are pleased that it turned out to be interesting. But what should be next? Now it is time to begin your observation.
Since you cannot observe the subject of your research and write an essay at the same time, you need to make notes. You should record what is happening, specifying the time, place, and date. Write notes by analyzing everything that you see and feel.
You must understand that the observation essay is different from other types of work. So here you should not only write down the general feelings but use a lot of adjectives. For example, when describing a smell, you should not write that something smells. You must describe this smell.
After you finish the research, you can start writing an essay. Use your notes. You must structure your article and edit it. Describe everything that happens in chronological order. Reread several times what you wrote until you are satisfied with the result.
In conclusion, it is better to briefly describe your observations and tell about your personal impression of the research process. You can tell why it is important to pay attention to such topics.
And in the end, you can answer the questions that you left unanswered in the introduction. You can describe your personal attitude to the topic and give an answer that is acceptable to you. But at the same time, you can leave someplace for the readers’ imagination, and allow them to come up with their own conclusions.
Observation Essay Examples Online: 20 Topics
See? As mentioned at the beginning of this article, choosing a topic is the worst thing that awaits you in the process of writing your observation essay. To make your task easier, our experts have compiled a list of observation essay topics.
Here are examples of interesting topics that you can use for your observation:
- How does caffeine affect your reaction?
- How does religion help to deal with problems?
- What are the “cures” for stress?
- Why are sweets bad for children’s behavior?
- Why do video games cause addiction?
- My role model.
- What can cartoons teach children?
- How do people react to breastfeeding women in public places?
- Where does uncertainty come from?
- Why do people get tattoos?
- How does success change a person?
- How do musical preferences shape?
- My first vacation with friends.
- The most embarrassing situation that happened to me.
- Why is the number of likes on social networks important to people?
- A film that I am willing to watch 100 times.
- Why are traditions important?
- Why is the Christmas atmosphere so magical?
- What role do superstitions play in our lives?
- Why do we take photos?
This is just a short list of research topics that our experts can write for you. In case, for some reason you cannot cope with your assignment alone, you may visit our essay writing service Homeworkfor.me. Why is it worth trying? Well, let’s see what benefits await you.
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After reviewing our prices on the site, you will understand that by paying a small sum, you will get an excellent paper from us and a good grade from your teacher.
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- 15 Great Observation Essay Topic Ideas You Should Not Miss
15 Observation Essay Topics & Tips Used to Write More Brilliant Papers
“Nothing has such power to broaden the mind as the ability to investigate systematically and all that comes under thy observation in life.” Marcus Aurelius
Every person faces various life situations when it is important to acquire information from a primary source to answer specific questions. Grab an observation essay example to see how experts arrange such information. Fact, observation, and inference are three words students should memorize. Writing a good observation essay makes a movie director out of the writer: he/she is focused on describing a particular experience using five senses:
Do you want your essay to make an imprint in the reader’s memory/leave an unforgettable impression? Buy an essay paper online from one of the best writing companies in the US!
What Is an Observation Essay and Its Purpose
Observation essay example of outline.
Read our unique guideline to have an observation essay example of outline!
You should face the problem discussed in your paper at least once in your life. To create a powerful observation essay, the author has to be a topic guru: describe what you survived or what inspires you.
Example: you decide to cover the topic of how safe it is to fly on a plane. It is not enough to take statistics and say it is the safest type of transport in the world without being the passenger. A good writer must share personal experience in order to support this claim. Attend a new restaurant before writing a review. Watch the latest movie before criticizing it in your work.
The planned experience involves taking notes, so carry a blank sheet of paper or mobile phone everywhere to write a part of what you wish to share. Leave the details for your first observation essay draft. Describe the entire process: from entering the restaurant and making an order to accepting the bill from the waiter. Conclude your impressions in the paper’s draft. Select several criteria to put a specific grade: quality of service, a variety of food, the location of the table, etc.
Each time your personal opinion changes (e.g., you order a different dish), write down these modifications. Put the events in a chronological order not to get confused. Ask your friends about the same restaurant to have a fuller picture before concluding.
Do not forget to obtain rights reserved once you’re done so that no one steals your words.
Write an Outline
To have a proper, logical paper structure, it is important to come up with an outline. Every time you get stuck, have a look at your observation essay plan to arrange the thoughts. You may change your final draft, but you must stick to the prepared outline. If your teacher requires, make a separate page with a detailed outline.
Do not hesitate to contact professional writing services in case you have problems with writing an outline or any other page.
Wonder how to start off an essay ? Try to provide the reading audience with the unique opportunity to familiarize them with the described event/experience. Start with creating a sound hook sentence to catch your reader’s eyes. Share some background information to let the readers know why you have chosen the specific observation essay topics. Example: you discuss the political elections campaign; tell several words about the candidates and the general mood of the event. Write your thesis statement at the end of the paragraph. It will be the essay’s fundament.
How to start an observation essay
- shocking statistics
- interesting or unknown fact
- provocative question
- an anecdote
- a relevant quote. Avoid using trivial quotes. If you choose this option, use up-to-date ones, said by successful people of at least 20-21 century
- real- life example. This option usually works well. We recommend to use it to quotes..
2. Three-Paragraph Body
An observational essay has a body like any other type of academic assignment: research paper, article review, book report , etc. Teachers recommend developing a three-paragraph body with three powerful, supporting arguments. Arrange the notes according to your paper’s outline; add more details. Remember:
“Often it is tiny fragments which either make a picture convincing or incidental." Simone Bingemer
Let's find out how to summarize an article . It is crucial to prevent your last paragraph from being wordy. Write a summary of the main points (arguments), restate your thesis sentence, and finish your paper with a call-to-action or another technique applied to leave powerful impressions. You may end with a rhetorical action, for example. Do not forget about the paper’s last page! The last page of an observation essay must contain a full bibliography list (list of references) to stress the author respects works with all rights reserved.
Proofread & Edit!
Want someone to check your final essay page by page? Place an order with the experienced online writing service, which serves college students around the English-speaking world!
Once you are done with your observation essay, do not hurry to submit your paper - there are several factors to check on every page:
- Spelling & Punctuation
Check whether the paper’s formatting corresponds to the instructor’s requirements; scan the final draft to see if it is 100% unique.
15 Most Effective Observation Essay Topics
Here is the list of observation essay topics to choose from:
- Thoughts on body piercing and tattoo
- Is tolerance important?
- Which video game may result in death?
- Significance of freedom and independence (Look at American Dream essay .)
- Meaning of money in modern world
- Sports develop leadership
- How I met my favorite movie star
- Is it dangerous to fly on the planes?
- Which book is worth reading at any age?
- New restaurant next-door
- The perfect birthday/wedding gift
- How must the word “honesty” be defined in dictionaries?
- Music as a great healing therapy
- How I personally became successful after writing the first page of my short story
- The qualities of true leaders based on people I met in my life
Type the essay title you like in Google search field to find a good observation essay example to use in your work.
Get Several Good Observation Essay Writing Tips
- Stay concise on the personal impression . Remember: the main goal of your personal paper is to ensure the reader’s experience will be enriched with your impressions.
- Get a notebook or mobile phone writing app to jot down every detail regarding your personal experience. A written word is more powerful than the one said before.
- Do not overload your observation essay with too many words ; try to avoid wordiness by ignoring transitional & introductory words (try to limit their usage). Structure your thesis statement clearly by selecting only the most important words on the chosen topic.
- Apply several examples related to your topic by describing several situations you faced during the entire life in details. It helps the readers to get a wider picture as well as share your personal experience.
- An observation essay has a lot of common features with the descriptive narrative. Studying descriptive writing will come in handy. Play with five human senses. Make sure every page of your paper makes the reader taste, hear, smell, see, and even touch your topic.
- No matter what place or subject you describe, try to remain objective in order to make the readers trust you .
- Do not forget to insert quotes from the reliable primary sources . Mention all works with rights reserved on the last page called Bibliography.
Remember: it is necessary to share lessons learned in order to highlight the importance of your selected topic. You can find excellent observation essay examples online. If you feel your observation essay lacks something, or you want a professional writer to proofread & edit your paper, feel free to order online academic assistance from one of the most credible companies.
Enrich your outlook by getting involved in something completely new. Share your personal experience in your own words!
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Best Observation Essay Topics for Students
Typically, you can use these observation essay topics when your professor decides to put your empirical skills to the test. Choosing a problem you understand is crucial in such a situation, as it should project your point of view connected to sufficient facts intelligible to the reader. It may be quite a challenge for students because it's tricky to write an astounding essay with those goals in mind. That's why choosing a topic subject requires careful evaluation, sound judgment, and a lot of effort above all. You should keep it front and center when it comes to this assignment.
A better example will serve you right. Imagine that you are in charge of a warehouse, in a company where they store goods like apples, and you are responsible for all activities that happen in the warehouse daily. At the end of your shift, you have to report every little thing you observed or saw happening around you in the warehouse during the day.
Furthermore, it is essential to learn how to write or jot down the ideas because some people have trouble meeting the requirements and deadlines or just recording a sighting. Say, a group of students observed a series of events during their practice session. Afterward, they must write a report or an observation essay about what they saw step by step.
The majority of students would falter at this task, unsure how to proceed. First, there is nothing wrong with planning, but be careful and don't overdo it. Sure, you have to plot your assignment, its structure at the least, to make it work. But, is reproducing every single detail in your essay really needed? Writing an observation essay ought to be more or less like composing a short story: spontaneous, self-generated, and growing with ease. So, don't overthink it. Come up with a simple outline and then allow your thoughts to take their course.
Let us give you some more structure tips!
- Be watchful during the first stage, the observations, to examine how everything ticks. Note down all the details you deem necessary to include in your writing. Organize your notes to make it easier to navigate them later.
- Start the essay with an introduction, the first paragraph. Describe why you selected the subject or topic, what you managed to observe, and where exactly it happened. Make sure to place your thesis statement at the end of the introduction paragraph.
- Write the body of the observation essay, where all the main points and ideas are explained clearly. You should arrange the previously jotted notes in proper order. Everything narrated should be in the present and not the past tense. All the data must be detailed precisely so that the audience feel as though they were present at the scene where the event happened.
- Summarise what you saw at the end. Give your opinion about your observation by explaining everything and connect all the dots for the reader.
- Go through your essay, check and correct your spellings, grammar, and punctuation, and make sure you convey the information in the right tense. The narrative should be in a linear progression, going from the strong points to the weak ones.
List of Topic Examples for an Observation Essay
To show the ability to be observant, the student needs to pick a good topic. You are supposed to have a point of view relevant to the subject you have selected, be it scenarios, pets, places, or trips. However, below are some examples of observation topics you may find helpful:
- That time I bumped into my favorite artist.
- Describe the treatment you received on your first day at high school.
- What was the most dramatic scene you ever observed?
- The impact of social media like Twitter, Snapchat, and Instagram you have witnessed.
- Describe your first time at the zoo.
- How do people behave at science fairs?
- Why is tolerance essential in our society?
- What are the advantages of living in harmony, how to make it possible?
- Explain some of the superstitious beliefs and how they affect people's lives.
- What is the hardest challenge you have been through that took you a lot of effort to handle?
- Write about a city you have been to and will never forget the visit.
- The road accident that almost took the life of my best friend.
- A novel you enjoy reading over and over again without getting bored of it.
- Your first time at the beach during the summer vacation.
- The best gift you ever received from your parents or friends at Christmas.
- The longest road trip with your family.
- My first ever rock concert.
- The first time I drove a car.
- The day I will never forget.
- The best summer camp I've ever been to.
These are a few observation paper ideas among many others you can use to master your writing skills. Sometimes, students still find it hard to write an essay and prefer our professional writers to do it for them. Feel free to contact us at any time!
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Field Observation Essays (Examples)
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Skateboard park, urban center Date and time of your observations: Saturday, 4PM Why you chose the setting: The setting is close by, but it still offers insight into a subset of youth culture in the city. I have never paid attention to the anthropological and sociological dynamics of a skateboard subculture. I am interested in finding out any patterns or new information. Description of the setting: The skateboard park is about the size of half a football field. It is large enough that I count roughly fifty people, if not more, present during the time of my observation period. The skateboard park itself consists of concrete shaped and molded so skaters can practice their tricks. The concrete has been painted by artists, who have created an urban aesthetic replete with graffiti-style font and stylized imagery including faces and psychedelic designs. There are some green spaces in the distance, surrounding the…
"Field Observation Exercise." Retrieved online: http://www.ssc.wisc.edu/~jpiliavi/357/FIELDOBSERVATION.htm
Stiffler, G. (2005). My first field observation. Retrieved online: http://tiger.towson.edu/~gstiff1/fieldexperience1.htm
Criminal Justice Research Field Observation
Indeed, during my second observation, which would occur during peak commuter hours, between 7:30 and 8:30 AM on a Thursday, I would see this process repeated 7 times. Trains would run more frequently and crowds would be thicker during this time. here I estimated roughly 40 people at the most at any one time during my preliminary observation, the same station contained what I estimated to be 400 to 500 people at this time. There was a sort of convergence of informal and formal behavior, with individuals tending to display pointed self-interest when descending to the train tracks and, conversely, tending to organize around the collective goal of descending in an orderly and safe manner. Indeed, all commuters appeared to know this process well and to actively engage it at their own respective paces. I also noted that individuals all tended to carry items which pointed to their purpose. Most…
Maxfield, M.G. & Babbie, E.R. (2008). Basics of Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology. Cengage Learning.
Ethnographical Research Field Observation in
There seemed to be a certain class-based attitude in their behavior, as if they were asserting their right to be in the park, over the largely more affluent playground-goers by using their dog. The children in the playground were all attended by mothers. The mothers did not seem to know each other well, perhaps because the children were all of different ages. Some of the mothers just watched their children from a distance, and talked on their cell phones. Other mothers, especially the mothers of smaller children, helped their children climb on the brightly-colored equipment. Many of the children seemed uncertain how to play, as if they did not come to the park often, and the mothers seemed unenthusiastic and hesitant. The children would climb to the top of the small, safe plastic structure in the center of the sand pit and look around, while the mothers would half-heartedly encourage…
Wake Up; Take a Shower; Take Breakfast With Other Family Members Arrive at the bank; pick a waiting ticket; interaction with service staff; a member of staff in the next counter is having a difficult time with a customer 9:00 am: Arrive at my girlfriend's house; help her with laundry and other household chores; watch a movie together 12:30 pm: Having lunch with my girlfriend in a restaurant; in an adjacent table three women are talking about their dating experiences with men in different cultures 2:00 pm: At the parking lot a beggar stops me; he tells me he has no home or family 7:00 pm: Watching evening news -- robbery at a local store and unnecessary shooting of an innocent Black man by a White police officer Application Sociology demonstrates that people's daily lives are shaped and constrained by the society (Dillon, 2010). By interacting with and/or watching other…
Dillon, M. (2010). Introduction to sociological theory: theorists, concepts, and their applicability to the twenty-first century. UK: John Wiley & Sons.
Hurst, C., Gibbon, H., & Nurse, A. (2016). Social inequality: forms, causes and consequences. 9th ed. New York: Routledge.
Williams, C. (2003). Sky demands: the demands of emotional labour in the airline industry. Gender, Work & Organisation, 10(5), 513-550.
Field Construction Site Visit St Patrick's Cathedral Restoration
St. Patrick's Cathedral: Field Trip Patrick's Cathedral's design is not only original but also distinct. Its proportions are also evidently harmonious. With impressive twin spikes characterizing its west facade and enormous bronze doors ushering in visitors and worshipers alike, St. Patrick's Cathedral is every inch an architectural masterpiece. At the time of my visit last Friday at around 12:30 PM, there was an ongoing restoration and renovation exercise which as I was made to understand takes a pause during Masses and continues thereafter. The three-phase undertaking will take five years to complete. It should be noted that although the scaffoldings did of course obstruct some spectacular observations of the Cathedral such as the Great Rose widow, a majority of the Cathedral's other aspects are still visible. As I gathered from yet another visitor, a number of renovation projects have been undertaken within the Cathedral during the last several decades. In…
Field Experiment on the Interactive Perspective of Deviance
Behavior Experiment The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an elevator and not turning around. The total number of people who entered the elevator was six, two stopped on the third floor, which was the first stop and the other three stopped on the fifth, which was the last stop. The experiment ended on the fifth floor and took a little over three minutes. eactions The other five people upon entering the elevator realized that not everybody turned to face the entrance as usual. The group seemed baffled with the occurrence. Two people, a female and a male laughed asking jokingly if they were supposed to turn around. They appeared friendly and continued with interesting comment until they left the elevator. The other three smiled but seemed less concerned. However, the…
Alder, P., & Alder, P. (2012). Constructions of Deviance: Social Power, Context, and Interaction (7th ed.). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
Beauvais, F. (1992). Characteristics of Indian Youth and Drug Use. American Indian and Alaska
Native Mental Health Research Journal .
Cullen, F.T., & Cullen, J.B. (1978). Toward A Paradigm of Labeling Theory. NCJRS, 53.
Total Set of Thirty Observations
Customer Service Triage at Home Depot Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket items they had to inevitably get the store manager involved to alleviate the conflicts with customers. The time required to resolve both the custom orders and big-ticket purchases actually took more time for customers than it would have taken to just go through the traditional checkout lanes. The lack of information workflow, process, pricing, and employee knowledge of the processes was evident by watching the series of transactions completed. The triage or problem solving of the store manager took an inordinate amount of time to troubleshoot the pricing discrepancies on the service contracts alone would have made it much simpler to have also gone through the traditional check-out lanes. The more complex the transaction the greater the need for Home Depot…
AMR Research (2003) - Self-Checkout Systems -- Waiting for the 'Aha!' Moment. Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
AMR Research-1 (2003) - the Aha Moment Arrives Wednesday April 9, 2003. Paula Rosenblum. Boston, MA
CapGemini (2003) - TRANSFORMING the SHOPPING EXPERIENCE THROUGH TECHNOLOGY, a Study in European Consumer Buying Behaviour. Accessed from the Internet on November 6, 2007 from location: http://www.no.capgemini.com/m/no/tl/pdf_Transforming_The_Shopping_Experience_Through_Technology__A_Study_in_European_Consumer_Buying_Behaviour_.pdf
HR Hypothesis the General Field of Human
H Hypothesis The general field of human resources has become more and more difficult as well as more perilous. That is not just a simple generalized statement made for dramatic effect and just for the purpose of setting up the introduction of this paper. Indeed, there are some questions that can and should be posed by human resources professionals that do not have clear answers because of how complicated and how contradictory the field's body of work has become. The ethical implications and obligations pertaining to human resources have been made very muddled by contradicting laws and guidelines thus making real compliance beyond a reasonable doubt very hard to pull off. The hypothesis that underlies this report comes down to one main statement, and that is as follows: The different ethics, laws and vagueness that exists in both has made it possible to become completely and reliably compliant with the…
Bruoden, B.C. (1989). TAX FACTORS IN CHOOSING THE CORRECT CORPORATE STATUS. Journal Of Financial Planning, 2(2), 75.
Charen, M. (2011, July 22). What Else Will ObamaCare Mandate? | RealClearPolitics. What Else Will ObamaCare Mandate? | RealClearPolitics. Retrieved October 26, 2013, from http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2011/07/22/it_should_ all_be_free_110669.html
FoxNews.com. (2013, October 23). Teachers' unions fight bill that would bar sex offenders from schools. Fox News. Retrieved October 26, 2013, from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2013/10/23/teachers-unions-fight-bill-that-would -
K9 K12 in the Field
Clay County The Field Experience Project that I participated over this course has enlightened me in many ways. Having a different perspective as an observer was a very valuable way of examining the teaching environment. The purpose of this essay is to summarize my experience as an interviewer and observer at the Clay County High School in Clay, V. This essay will first give some background on the circumstances of my situation before capturing some specific items that occurred while I was there. After describing some of the background information about the school, I will then give an account of my experiences at the school. I will describe the details about my activities and interactions while I was present as an observer. The final part of the essay will discuss some of my specific observations about culture and how culture affected the school that I observed. Background Clay County High…
Barth, R. (2002). The Culture Builder. Educational Leadership, 59, 8. pp 6-11. Retrieved from http://cursa.ihmc.us/rid=1207228897993_605800142_8024/Barth - %20Culture%20Builder.pdf
Chenoweth, E., & Galliher, R.V. (2004, October 15). Factors in-uencing college aspirations of rural West Virginia high school students. Journal of Research in Rural Education, 19(2). Retrieved [date] from http://jrre.psu.edu/articles/19-2.pdf
Clay Count High School Website. Viewed 1 March 2013. Retrieved from http://www.claycountyhighschool.org/index.html
US News and World Report. Clay County High School. Viewed 1 March 2013. Retrieved from http://www.usnews.com/education/best-high-schools/west-virginia/districts/clay-county- schools/clay-county-high-school-21332
Seat Belt Usage Field Work Timeline and
Seat Belt Usage Field Work Timeline and Budget The focus of this research proposal is to examine and analyze seat belt usage by examining demographic and geographic information to determine if seat belt usage has increased nationwide and if so, what effect this has had on traffic accidents and fatalities. Research will be obtained from other studies that have collected data from observation and surveys. Fieldwork studies will also be included. The majority of information will be taken from the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT), National Center for Statistics and Analysis Center, (NCSAC), National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). Controlled studies have been conducted on a large-scale basis and would be hard to recreate. This paper will rely on comprehensive studies that have been conducted nationwide. The primary objectives of the data gathering throughout the course of the study will be to…
Motorcycle deaths rose for the fifth year in a row, although the increase -- "to 3,244 riders in 2002 from 3,197 in 2001 -- "was the smallest in that period. Fatalities among riders 50 and over jumped 26%.
Pedestrian deaths fell by 1.9% to 4,808 last year.
Each year, NHTSA collects crash statistics from 50 States and the District of Columbia to produce an annual report on trends in traffic safety. A summary of the report is available at the link below.
Counting or Documenting Observations According to Authors
counting or documenting observations," according to authors Maxfield and Babbie. The descriptive study in this paper relates to a controversy in a small town near my home, in which a barbed wire fence has been erected to keep people out of a forest of pine trees. The problem emerged when The Nature Conservancy purchased an 800-acre easement on 1,400 acres of woodlands. People in the community had used trails in the property (it has always been private property) to get downtown, or to the high school. Suddenly a 6-strand barbed wire fence blocked the trails citizens had used for 80 years or more. hat is the purpose of this research? The research is to document and explain how neighbors and other people in the community responded to the erection of a 6-strand barbed wire fence (with barbed wire wrapped around the top of the gates that were installed). The descriptive…
Maxfield, Michael G., and Babbie, Earl R. (2011). Basics of Research Methods for Criminal
Justice and Criminology. Independence, KY: Cengage Learning.
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today. As the term implies, magnets, specifically high field magnets, are an essential part of these sophisticated devices with important implications for a wide range of valuable healthcare and research applications. To gain additional insights into how these devices operate, this paper provides a discussion concerning the standard construction of modern high field magnets used in nuclear magnetic resonance devices, including a detailed graphic illustrated the different components of a representative magnet. An examination of the effects of transitions to higher magnet strengths on cooling systems is followed by an analysis of the superconducting materials used and a brief description of magnet construction. A discussion concerning the differences between shielded magnets and non-shielded magnets and innovations in technology that may allow room…
Carlisle, R. (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries: All the Milestones in Ingenuity -- From the Discovery of Fire to the Invention of the Microwave Oven. Hoboken,
NJ: John Wiley & Sons.
Depalma, A. (2003, August 25). 'Mass Spectrometry and Proteomics.' The Scientist, vol. 17, no.
16, pp. 44-47.
Anthropological Observations Walking Downtown Is
Additionally, many were on their cell phones; it seemed like they were purposely trying to find ways to keep them from interacting with each other. This showed a clear disconnect between the different subgroups that are in such close proximity of one another. Only a few actually spoke to each other, and when this was observed it was typically using only brief statements. Social manners say a lot about a society's culture. Watching what interactions that did take place showed the clear signs of what is acceptable within this society. People would ask each other questions with polite statements ending in "please" and "thank you." This signifies a sense of manners, but also a sense of coldness that only is present within interactions between strangers. The interactions between these individuals were very formal, showing a use of language that separated the individuals from other members of society who might otherwise…
Eichberg, Henning. (2010). How to study body culture: Observing human practice. International Society of Eastern Sports & P.E. Web. http://www.isdy.net/pdf/eng/national_04.pdf
Engel, Claudia a. & Ebron, Paulla a. (2004). Mapping key concepts in cultural anthropology. Concept Maps: Theory, Methodology, Technology. Web. http://cmc.ihmc.us/papers/cmc2004-029.pdft
O'Neil, Dennis. (2006). What is culture? Palomar University. Web. http://anthro.palomar.edu/culture/culture_1.htm
Art Education field
A number of modifications have occurred within the area of arts instruction, leading to a redesigning of the whole curriculum. A few transformations involve modern trends like literacy training via art, worldwide popular culture, 21st-century abilities, social justice, art evaluation, cultural diversity, and interdisciplinary approaches. Teaching Literacy through Art According to Moody-Zoet, art-teaching offers distinctive and useful intellectual behaviors and skill sets which aid in the learning of other academic disciplines. The following skills are introduced, cultivated and honed by arts education: craft creation capacity; task involvement and determination when it comes to task completion; envisioning, expression, and seeking of a vision for oneself; observation; reflection; stretching; exploration; and understanding of the art community/world. Arts education represents a vital component of every learner's holistic scholastic literacy. The arts, after all, are entrenched in representation and cognition, in addition to be profoundly involved in the way education expands as well as…
Business Managers Work in Varied Fields From
Business managers work in varied fields from security companies to tech startups, to managing the careers of celebrities and sports starts. In essence, it is a person who has the ability and desire to drive and motivate the work of others to effectively and efficiently run a major business that will lead to the company generating a large profit and promoting a successful company brand and image. Searching for a proper candidate for interview was difficult. I need someone who was experienced in their field and also managed a company. I searched profiles in Linkedin because I felt I would easily be able to communicate with the person via email or message. When searching for the appropriate person for this interview, I searched for someone who is a specialist in her area. She herself, is a specialist in electrical & mechanical BAU & MAC services. Furthermore, the company she works…
My Next Move (2013). O*NET OnLine. Retrieved from http://online.onetcenter.org
International Relations Study The Field
From this I would take advice from the history of the Swiss -- I would require all children were taught the use of weapons in adolescence, and that upper classes in school coincided with military training. After graduation, every citizen would be required to keep a weapon in the home, and asked to serve in their community guard, which would train a couple times a year. Defense plans would be built on a street-to-street basis, and every large metropolis would also have more advanced weaponry available to civil servants and block commanders in case of invasion. This training would both protect the future democracy of the country, and assure that any nation wishing to invade would face a true quagmire of house-to-house fighting in every city. I would then focus on making the nation an economic asset to the larger world. I would first work to assure that the country…
Participant Observation the Ritual Activity
Being a Muslim is an overriding cultural feature that cuts across a large number of races and nationalities, but many have the same common traits of gender segregation, emphasis on cleanliness and the same schedule of life. My Interpretation During the ritual I observed at the mosque, I was able to notice how the ritual impacts society. The first distinction is that there was a clear line created between those who are members of the in-group and those who are not. While I was welcome to be there, I was clearly in the latter group. I was welcome to observe, but not to participate in, the rituals. The performance of the rituals allows on to become a member of the society. It was interesting to see that elements of modern life have crept into the rituals, however. One example is that I observed younger members of the mosque texting outside…
Biblical Principles in the Field of Psychology
Biblical Principles in the Field of Psychology Biblical Principles in Psychology Subject Code This question is still a subject of debate in the academia. One of the two definitions of psychology is through the biblical vantage point and thus using religious material to enrich it would be welcome in the broad sense that psychology finds a place in the biblical arena. Outside this consideration, psychology is generally considered as the subject interested in studying human and animal behavior. Nevertheless, the soul is a very important subject in the study of psychology. First off, psychology attempts to address issues such as the nature of human soul, explores the origin of a soul, and attempts to establish the purpose of man's soul and what might be at the final destiny of a soul. Discussion There have been mixed reactions to whether biblical principles should be used in the field of psychology. For…
Cosgrove, M. (1979) "Psychology Gone Awry" Grand Rapids: Zondervan
Wayne, J. (2010) "Modern Psychology and the Bible" Available Online:
Human Resource Issues in Health Field
Human esource Issues in Health Field The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research on human resources in the health sector Successful realization the mission and goals in this field is determined by the dedication and skills that the specialists possess. This study identifies various issues that often arise and bedevils this field. Current trends relating to technological advancements affecting the success and performance of employees in this field are also identified (Fried, & Johnson, 2002). Therefore, in order to improve service delivery in the health sector and consequently promote a healthy society, it is critical to identify and analyze the various challenges facing human resources in the health sector. This will provide a basis for developing various interventions aimed at dealing with the identified challenges and consequently improving the quality of service delivery in…
American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration. (2012). American Society for Healthcare Human Resources Administration ... membership directory. Gainesville FL: Naylor.
Fried, B., & Fottler, M.D. (2011). Fundamentals of human resources in healthcare. Chicago: Health Administration Press.
Fried, B., & Johnson, J.A. (2002). Human resources in healthcare: Managing for success. Washington, DC: AUPHA Press.
Kabene, S.M. (2011). Human resources in healthcare, health informatics and healthcare systems. Hershey, PA: Medical Information Science Reference.
Standard Field Sobriety Test Evaluation
One solution to enhance learning might be to require that all officers take the initial course and to then develop online content for 'follow-up' briefings and re-testing of knowledge every six months. This would be more rigorous than the current method of having refresher courses every three years. The frequency of the retraining would reinforce the seriousness of the issue. While it is true that there is an optional SFST update course to be taken within six months, the course is not mandatory. While an SFST instructor must supervise the SFST practitioner administering the SFSTs' in initial administration, the 35 test cases within six months of the initial training that the officer must complete are not supervised and thus there is no ongoing feedback during the course, limiting its effectiveness. Feedback is an essential component of learning -- in the classroom and in the field. Level 3: Behavior While Levels…
Participant Observation Can for Purposes of Simplicity
Participant observation can, for purposes of simplicity, "be placed on a continuum with 'passive' participant observation at one end of the continuum, and 'active' participant observation at the other" (Burgess, 2003, p.69). These two forms of observer participation give rise to four strategies; complete participant, complete observer, participant-as-observer, and observer-as-participant, which have been better-explained through the scenarios below (Burgess, 2003). Observations of professional conduct in the classroom by the student author of a course evaluation guide The complete participant strategy works best in this case; the observer ought to act like a full member of the group and not reveal his research intentions because any suspicions by members of the observed group could lead them to display bias in an attempt to make the evaluation go a certain way. Observation of retail shoppers by a researcher who is interested in determining customer purchase time by type of goods purchased The…
Biggemann, S. (2010). Modeling the Structure of Business to Business Relationships. In Woodside, A.G. (Ed.), Organization Culture, Business to Business Relationships, and Interfirm Networks. (pp. 27-178). Bingley: Emerald Publishing Company.
Burgess, R. (2003). Some Role Problems in Field Research. In Burgess, R.G. (Ed.), Field Research: A Sourcebook and Field Manual (pp. 68-74). New York: Routledge.
Interview Sessions and Formal Observation
Interview Sessions What types of behavior did you notice? In hindsight -- by focusing on what you did -- what types of behaviors might you have failed to notice? The noticeable trait observed during the course of a formal interaction was that all students and teachers are engaged in teaching and learning. The young ELLs were both attentive as well as inquisitive in the classroom setting where the assistant teacher had the role of providing each student with a personal attention. Simultaneously, the head instructor worked hand-in-hand with others who experienced different challenges with understanding some concepts. Why do you think certain aspects of the setting stood out for you? All through my observation, several aspects stood out impressively. Some of the aspects that got me enthralled; understood how young leaders could be able to work in harmony with one another and by so doing become responsible for their learning…
Bogdan, R. C., & Biklen, S. K. (2007). Qualitative research for education: An introduction to theories and methods (5th ed.). Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Pearson Educational.
Montoya, D. (2016, January 24). How to Avoid Researcher Bias While Doing a Research Paper. Retrieved from http://www.ehow.com/how_7776012_avoid-bias-doing-research-paper.html
1st and 2nd Grade Observations
Elementary School ESL Teacher Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of English language instruction to suit students who primarily speak another language at home. The concept of English as Second Language (ESL) learners has emerged during the last few decades to recognize the need for teachers to customize their lesson plans, becoming more inclusive in terms of accessibility to ESL students. In light of the fact that ESL students are far more likely to absorb English during their earliest years, many school districts have elected to integrate ESL instruction within the 1st and 2nd grade levels, in the hope that this proverbial head start will enable the majority of ESL students to effectively utilize English in the educational setting. Recently, I was fortunate enough to have an opportunity to observe a 1st…
Technological Observations of Henry Adams
His neck, a mechanical part of him, has become so overwrought by the pressures and complexity of technology that it has stopped working. Whole segments of the American nation have become powerless by the overwhelming pomposity of the new inventions that, unable to keep up with the new dialect, they have surrendered to the more youthful marchers and have become trodden underfoot. The old American not only becomes defunct; worse still, he becomes extinct. The pre-electric era was relatively benign to the present and future potential terrors. Those "earlier stages of progress" were "simple and easy [for humans] to absorb" 7 and beneficial in that they helped him do his work without overwhelming him and attaching his esteem. However then: as the mind of man enlarged its range, it enlarged the field of complexity, and must continue to do so, even into chaos, until the reservoirs of sensuous or supersensuous…
Formed on Properly Executed Observations Does Make
formed on properly executed observations does make out efficient teachers as well as practices itself. Teachers' accomplishes on the classroom surveillance mechanism of appraisal system dependably envisage the attainment increases undertaken by their students. The outcome upholds the notion that teacher assessment systems require not be founded on test scores only for the purpose of providing constructive in sequence as per which teachers are for the most part effectual in elevating student success. Teachers Evaluation System (TES) has been seen as an exceptional instance of sky-scraping quality assessment program founded on classroom observations. At a bare minimum, it is a structure to which the quarter has dedicated substantial resources and this prove that teaching excellence is valued and recognized by the university. Focusing on the TES it is without doubt that the presence of appropriate resource as well as technical support is felt this is because the TES which is…
Chool Age Observation I Observed
The preschool period is generally considered to be three to five years of age (4). I observed a five-year-old female playing at a playground. The tasks witnessed were running, playing on a slide, ascending stairs, and climbing on a jungle gym (a circular interlocked metal object with a ladder). Play was performed in the presence of her mother and older brother. The preschooler is a very social individual who is making friends and exploring the world (4). This child had a tendency to mimic the actions of her older, seven-year-old brother. He made a point of showing his sister when he walked up the slide rather than sliding down it. Repition is a coping behavior and helps children learn (2). She was so amused by her brother that she started to copy the action and, when mastered, called to her mother to watch her perform this amazing feat. The child…
Assignment 2 Field Experience
Forest Date and time of observations: May 13, 2017; 12 pm to 4 pm. Why the setting was chosen: The selection of the setting was largely informed by the observer's interest in the setting. Also, the setting is unique, providing an opportunity to observe the natural world without interruption. Description of the setting: The forest is located in central Utah. The property is expansive, covering more than one million acres. It features not only woods, but also wildlife, a lake, and rocks. Observations: Hear: A smooth breeze can be heard rustling through the woods. In the background, noises of various birds and animals can be heard. The noises are of birds and animals ranging from raccoons to vultures, beavers, hummingbirds, woodpeckers, and cougars. Movements of animals can also be heard. Smell: The air is cool, clean, and refreshing. There is a slight smell of decaying animals in the air. Touch:…
Psychology Is a Multifaceted Field
eferences http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101936297 Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235 Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field / . Crows Nest, N.S.W.: Allen & Unwin. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=10079016 Hoagwood, K., Jensen, P.S., & Fisher, C.B. (Eds.). (1996). Ethical Issues in Mental Health esearch with Children and Adolescents. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=99086817 Lewis, D. (1960). Quantitative Methods in Psychology. New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=9395983 Newman, I., & Benz, C.. (1998). Qualitative-Quantitative esearch Methodology: Exploring the Interactive Continuum. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois University Press. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5006987353 Poyrazli, S. (2003). Validity of ogerian Therapy in Turkish Culture: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. Journal of Humanistic Counseling, Education and Development, 42(1), 107+. etrieved February 28, 2005, from Questia database, http://www.questia.com.
Risk Management the Field of
In terms of the management of the risk, this can be completed through either one or more of the following techniques: (1) mitigation of the risks; (2) transfer of the risk from one unit to the other, one project to the other and so on; (3) the acceptance of the risk; (4) the avoidance of the risks; (5) the communication of the risks and the search for risk management strategies, and last, (6) the implementation of the risk management strategies (Elky, 2006). Once the company has decided to accept and mitigate the risk, it has several solutions to managing the risk. Steve Elky at the SANS Institute points out that there are at least five methods for risk management, namely the NIST methodology (National Institute of Standards and Technology), the OCTAVE methodology, the FAP methodology, the COBA methodology and the isk Watch methodology. The challenge at this level is for…
Collier, P.M., Agyei-Ampomah, S., 2009, CIMA official learning system performance strategy, 6th edition, Elsevier
DuBrin, A.J., 2011, Essentials of management, Cengage Learning
Elky, S., 2006, An introduction to information system risk management, SANS Institute, http://www.sans.org/reading_room/whitepapers/auditing/introduction-information-system-risk-management_1204 last accessed on July 10, 2012
Cobit 5: a business framework for the governance and management of enterprise IT, ISACA http://www.isaca.org/COBIT/Pages/default.aspx last accessed on July 10, 2012
Personal Learning The field of qualitative research
My learning in the field of qualitative research 1. In terms of qualitative methodology and the problems of scientism/positivism, what does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude and certainty, but still to have respect for empirical work? Where do you presently locate yourself paradigmatically and methodologically in terms of your own investments in producing knowledge? As a research strategy, positivism can be an approach that is based on the ontological principle and the concept that reality and truth are usually free and independent of the individual and observer. A large number of critics and philosophers who are concerned with the idea and concept of investigation and research agree with this statement. The definition of truth as an independent, objective and autonomous existence of positivism can be seen in various works. A positivist researcher believes that the world adjusts to the unchanging and perpetual rules and laws of circumstances…
Audits in the Field of Nursing Both
Audits In the field of nursing, both qualitative and quantitative data are useful and needed. The qualitative approach comes much from the patient and/or stakeholders. How does the patient "feel," what are some not quantittiative things one notices. Often, though, in charting a patient, a medical professional is able to quantify some of the qualitative data (e.g. complexion pale or wan; skin temperature, palor, attention span, etc.). The quantitative data are data that can be easily measured and work in tandem to provide a way to make a cogent diagnosis for the patient. Qualitative data is also part of the nurse's ability to make judgments about the quality and morality of situations, indeed, taking the principles of nursing ethics (beneficence, autonomy, etc.), many of those decision types are qualitative based. Some of this is, of course, related to secondary data sets from other research studies outside the purvue of patient-care,…
Information on Charting. (2011). AHIMA. Retrieved from: http://www.ahima.org/
The How's and Why's of Chart Audits. (2005). Duke University Medical Center. Retrieved from: http://patientsafetyed.duhs.duke.edu/module_b/chart_audit.html
Medical Chart Audits. (2011). AAPC Physician Services. Retrieved from:
Dream of Having a Career in Field
dream of having a career in field of Actuarial Science started at a young age. This shaped my thinking by wanting to understand logic and the way conclusions were reached utilizing complex formulas. Along the way, this fueled my sense of motivation in assisting others. It focused on not only my own personal satisfaction, but the joy I experience when they succeeded. This is because I am an international student, who is the first in his family to go to college and can relate to the challenges they are experiencing. During this time, I dedicated myself to education and gaining real world experience. My journey took me to Ohio State University. This is where I received my Bachelors in Actuarial Science. Never giving into the temptations of college life, as I always remained focused on working in the field. I am motivated to use advanced statistics to help corporations, entrepreneurs…
Use of Drones in Field Biology
Marine Biology & Drones Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered up dramatic images of studies underway, for example of orca populations off the coast of British Columbia, but there are many studies around the world that are using drones. The advantage of drones is that they can fly above marine environments, providing an overhead view of those environments. This can be valuable in terms of counting animal populations for example, because with drones animals typically do not change their behaviors (Schiffman, 2014). Drones have become a popular tool for field biologists in part because drone technology is improving and the cost of these devices is falling (Schiffman, 2014). In some fields, such as the observation of marine life in Antarctic sea ice, it has been noted that the normal observation is…
Gremillet, D., Puech, W., Garcon, V., Boulinier, T. & Maho, Y. (2012). Robots in ecology: Welcome to the machine. Open Journal of Ecology. Vol. 2 (2) 49-57.
Kelly, N., Murase, H., Kitakado, T., Kock, K., Williams, R., Herr, H. & Walloe, L. (2012). Appraisal of methods and data used to estimate abundance of Antarctic minke whales within sea ice covered areas of the Southern Ocean. CSIRO/Australian Marine Mammal Centre. Retrieved November 1, 2015 from http://www.marinemammals.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0003/135615/SC-64-IA10.pdf
Schiffman, R. (2014). Drones flying high as new tool for field biologists. Nature. Vol. 344 (6183) 459
Vas, E., Lescroel, A., Duriez, O., Boguszewski, G. & Gremillet, D. (2015). Approaching birds with drones: First experiments and ethical guidelines. Biology Letters. Vol. 11, 1-4.
Survey Interview and Direct Observation Methodologies
Motivation in the WorkplaceIntroductionThere are a variety of ways that an I-O consultant could go about determining the underlying motivational problem in a workplace. One method would be to simply observe employees and look for telltale signs of dissatisfaction or apathy. Another approach would be to conduct interviews with employees, either individually or in groups, or to administer surveys that ask employees directly about their level of satisfaction with their work and what motivates them. By using one or the other of these methods, an I-O consultant can usually get to the bottom of any motivational problems in a workplace. This paper will discuss the strengths and weaknesses of both methods of understanding employee motivation.Method 1: Direct ObservationThe direct observation method of obtaining data can be very useful at times, but it can also be very limiting. This research method involves observing employees in their natural work environment and then…
ReferencesBrutus, S., Aguinis, H., & Wassmer, U. (2013). Self-reported limitations and future directions in scholarly reports: Analysis and recommendations. Journal of management, 39(1), 48-75.Groves, R. M., Fowler Jr, F. J., Couper, M. P., Lepkowski, J. M., Singer, E., & Tourangeau, R. (2011). Survey methodology. John Wiley & Sons.Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., & Pal, D. K. (2015). Likert scale: Explored and explained. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 7(4), 396.Wickström, G., & Bendix, T. (2000). The\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\" Hawthorne effect\\\\\\\\\\\\\\\"—what did the original Hawthorne studies actually show?. Scandinavian journal of work, environment & health, 363-367.
Nursing Informatics Field Experience
Clinical Experience The American Nurses Association (2008) define nursing informatics as the mixture of computer and information science and nursing towards improving healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. Nursing informatics is a career that has developed from the evolution of health informatics, which involves the use of knowledge to examine and translate health data into useful information that can be utilized in enhancing patient outcomes through improved processes. As the healthcare field continues to adopt technology rapidly, nursing informatics is one of the educational programs that has emerged to prepare the workforce towards effective use of health information technology to enhance patient care delivery (Dalrymple, 2011). Nursing informatics education include formal graduate programs that provide both theoretical and practical training (which includes working with an already practicing preceptor). The ANA Scope and Standards of Nursing Informatics Practice requires students in this profession to complete a formal practicum as part of practical…
American Nurses Association (ANA). (2008). Nursing informatics: Scope & standards of practice. Washington, D.C.: Nursesbooks.org.
Dalrymple, P. W. (2011). Data, information, knowledge: The Emerging Field of Health Informatics. Bulletin of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 37(5), 41-44. doi:10.1002/bult.2011.1720370512
Gugerty et al. (2007). Challenges and Opportunities in Documentation of the Nursing Care of Patients. Retrieved from Nursing Workforce Commission of Maryland website: http://mbon.maryland.gov/Documents/documentation_challenges.pdf
McLane, S. and Turley, J. P. (2011). Informaticians: How They May Benefit your Healthcare Organization. The Journal of Nursing Administration, 41 (1), 29-35. doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181fc19d6
Evidence-Based Nursing and Research in the Field
Evidence-ased Nursing and Research In the field of nursing, understanding how to apply specific research can help everyone to provide more effective care to patients. This is because the techniques and ideas that are discussed will have an impact on how they are applied. To fully understand this we will examine two different articles that are discussing specific quantitative and qualitative techniques in the field. Once this occurs, is when we can see how these ideas could be utilized in a modern health care environment. The two articles that we will be examining are Dance of the Call ells (written by Deiterick) and The Effects of Nursing Rounds (written by Meade). What we will be focusing on are the different methodologies that are utilized and the impact that they are having on the way various techniques are continually applied in the field. This will be accomplished by comparing the methods…
Deiterick, L. (2006). Dance of the Call Bells. Journal of Nurse Care Quality, 21, (4), 316 -- 324.
Meade, C. (2006). Effects of Nursing Rounds. AJN, 106, (9), 58 -- 71.
The Nursing Field Is Evolving as Helpful Technologies Are Embraced
Nursing Informatics / Annotated Bibliography & Brief Critique Harris, R., Bennett, J., and Ross. F. (2013). Leadership and innovation in nursing seen through a historical lens. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(7. 1629-1638. Aim of the Article and Main Findings There was a time when technology was a distant vision in the minds of healthcare professionals, but the values that emerged from nurses nearly a hundred years ago are values that should be alive and well today notwithstanding all the wonderful tools that the healthcare field has today. This peer-reviewed article looks into the past to see how (qualitatively) nurses in the UK responded to the leadership style of Dame / Matron Muriel Powell between the years 1920-1980, well before today's nurses are empowered with the advanced technologies and communication standards of today. The point of the research is to review interviews that were conducted with nurses that worked and trained…
Field Grade Officers and Achievement of Organizational Results
ILE L100 I was pretty enthusiastic when I returned to the 56th ACT having been ordered to assume responsibility as the deputy brigade commander (DCO). I felt proud and lucky. I had held the proud and shinny image of the 56th ACT in my head for the last two years. When I returned, there had been some significant changes. It has not been long since I returned, and with the division commander losing confidence in the ability of COL Timmons to be an effective commander of the brigade, I now command the 56th ACT. On my mind always was how I was going to restore the image of the 56th. I know it will be hard and challenging, but one thing I am sure of is that it can be done. I have had vast experience in the brigade. Drawing from this experience and the CGSOC L100'S themes - notably…
Aldweiri, Maj Bashar. (2012). academia.edu. n.d. https://www.academia.edu/8997235/US_ARMY_COMMAND_AND_GENERAL_STAFF_COLLEGE_US_Army_Command_and_General_Staff_School_Command_and_General_Staff_Officer_Course_CGSOC_L100_Developing_Organizations_and_Leaders_L100_Take_Home_Exam_Case_Study_AY_13-14_The_56th_A (accessed November 24, 2014).
Chandler, Diane J. "The Perfect Storm of Leaders' Unethical Behavior: A Conceptual Framework." International Journal of Leadership Studies, 2009.
Keltner, D., Langner, C.A., & Allison, M.L. (2006).Power and moral leadership. In D. Rhode (Ed.), Moral leadership: The theory and practice of power, judgment, and policy (pp. 177-194). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Lipman-Blumen, J. (2005). The allure of toxic leaders: Why we follow destructive bosses and corrupt politicians - and how we can survive them. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
Communication in 'Quiet Backs' Pattern
Evidently, the neighborhood patrons are the 'insiders' while the strangers are considered 'outsiders in the cafe; the business group is categorized between these two groups (insiders and outsiders). What is remarkable in this cafe is that it lacked the artificiality of friendliness that popular coffee shops like Starbucks seem to cultivate. In this cafe, friendliness is natural, though exclusive in the sense that regular customers received a warmer welcome by the customers as compared to those who were just passing by. Since most of the customers are regulars, I have observed that they can easily distinguish whom they should be friendly with: those who take time to drink their coffee and stay in the cafe were greeted and/or smiled at by some of them. Those who were just passing by, however, only received the politeness of the staff, while most of the customers were indifferent to them. Evidently, it is…
Identifying Strengths and Weaknesses in Teaching Strategies
Post-Observation of Field Teaching Experiences The purpose of this paper is to provide a description concerning what was learned about teaching and learning in the course in general and through the observation of real-world classroom teachers as well as how this author plans to implement the lessons learned in his own teaching practice. To this end, a series of major take-aways on teaching and learning are discussed together with supporting examples, followed by a description of selected learning strategies and evidence-based practices that were observed which the author intends to implement to support student learning. Finally, a summary of the teaching experiences and the findings that emerged from this reflection are presented in the conclusion. Major take-aways The four field experiences completed during this course yielded a number of significant take-aways that provided valuable insights and exemplars, but the following observations represent those that had a particularly significant impact: ·…
Coding Data Analysis Technique Coding
) However, additional observation visits in the site could help provide more in-depth information that will yield sub-categories for the category, "Activities in the skateboard park." Under this category, observations were identified as "skateboarders taking breaks," "skateboarding," "hanging out," "smoking marijuana," and "video- or phone video- taking." Additional visits to the site will determine if there are other activities done in the skateboard park apart from those identified already after the observation visit. It could be that the observation "hanging out" can be further subdivided into other observations. However, in coding, the key to determining categories and sub-categories is rich in-depth data, which could only be collected by conducting frequent observation visits in the site. During the coding process, I realized that as the researcher-observer, I become more focused on my observations that are recurring and more relevant to the purpose of the site (skateboard park). As I go on…
Memory as a Child When I Was
memory as a child, when I was just four years old, continues to haunt me until this day nearly 50 years later. The eldest of five children in an impoverished dysfunctional family, my mother often made me look after my younger siblings. My mother was upstairs on the neighbor's phone while I watched my ten-month-old sister, (name). Suddenly, (name) started choking and turning blue. Petrified, I did not know what to do. I screamed for my mother, who came rushing down the stairs and immediately called for an ambulance. Although (name) had a freak heart attack, and I was not to blame, guilt plagued me for years as she became blind, deaf and mute. As I matured, I realized that I was not culpable for (name's) illness and death at a young age. I also realized that this experience so early on in life, along with my impaired home life,…
Reality TV Reinforce Negative Role
However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to qualitative research, these methods had to undergo some form of transformation to make them acceptable to the empirical mindset. ainwright argues that in order to achieve this, qualitative methods had to sacrifice some of their critical elements in favor of validity and reliability. He argues that one cannot have criticism and validity at the same time. However, this is a difficult viewpoint to accept and if one examines the method to be employed in this research, the presence of validity and controls does not limit the ability to criticize the results. Increasing validity and reliability in the qualitative research means the development of criteria on the data collection. This may be a hindrance in the traditional sociological setting, such as field…
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Hammersley, M. 1992. What's wrong with ethnography? London: Routledge.
Presence of Multiple Views and
However, the researchers can visualize the 'holistic' strategies even involve wide scope for utilization of computing resources as the basic instruments for collection and analyzing the data. (Willis; Jost, 2000) The usage of computers has played a significant role in quantitative research; likewise they have the ability to offer considerably to qualitative research. The quantity of data that is regularly gathered is the main restriction in carrying out successful qualitative research, as researchers tend to be intimate to a phenomenon of interest. The quantity is such that it can lead to data asphyxiation, restricting the accomplishment of a central purpose of qualitative research, the close participation of a researcher with his/her data such that all related data affects analysis and successive summarization. With the text volume, there is an exponential raise of the variety of construct classifications and of patterns of constructs, which can come out from qualitative data. The…
Alexander, Angela M. (September 16, 2000) Check Mate: An Internet-based Qualitative Study of the Processes involved in Error Checking. Pharmacy Practice Research. Papers presented at the British Pharmaceutical Conference, Birmingham: September 10-13, 2000. The Pharmaceutical Journal. Volume: 265; No 7114; pp: 112-117
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Statement of the Phenomenon of Interest
quality where data is gathered through interviews, surveys and observations, while quantitative study establishes its results on the basis of surveys, questionnaires and statistical data. A quantitative study "Study of Nurses' Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey" by Prem et al. can be compared with the qualitative study in question to understand the difference. The aim of this study is to assess the knowledge of nursing professionals about palliative care through a palliative care knowledge test (PCKT) (Prem et al., 2012). A cross-sectional survey has been done amongst 363 nurses working in a multi-speciality hospital by using a questionnaire PCKT, unlike qualitative study done by Dykes et al. that utilized a sample of 23 Ns and 19 NAs which can be easily interviewed, questioned and observed. A general finding of the quantitative study was in agreement with the previously established facts of poorer knowledge of palliative care but…
Dykes, P. C., Carroll, D. L., Hurley, A. C., Benoit, A. & Middleton, B. (2009). Why Do Patients in Acute Care Hospitals Fall? Can Falls be prevented." J. Nurs Adm., 39(6), 299 -- 304.doi: 10.1097/NNA.0b013e3181a7788a. Retrieved 19 September 2016 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3107706/#R19
Lobiondo-Wood, G. & Haber, J. (2014). Nursing Research: Methods and Critical Appraisal for Evidence-Based Practice. (ed. 8). Missouri: Mosby, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. Retrieved 19 September 2016 fromhttps://books.google.co.in/books?id=wXWSAAAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=snippet&q=grounded%20theory&f=false
Prem, V., Karvannan, H., Kumar, S. P., Karthikbabu, S., Syed, N., Sisodia, V. & Jaykumar, S. (2012). Study of Nurses' Knowledge about Palliative Care: A Quantitative Cross-sectional Survey. Indian Journal of Palliative Care, 18(2), 122-127.doi: 10.4103/0973-1075.100832
Wyse, S. E. (2011). What is the Difference Between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research? Snap Surveys.com. Retrieved 21 September 2016 fromhttp://www.snapsurveys.com/blog/what-is-the-difference-between-qualitative-research-and-quantitative-research/
Internal P Loading in Shallow
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in that it highlights the complexity of understanding P. fractions in any given body of water. There are a multitude of potential reactions in any body of water. Oxygen plays a role in the reactions of any individual lake, but one cannot make predictions based on oxygen level alone. Shallow lakes differ from stratified lakes in many ways. A stratified lake typically reaches equilibria in such a manner that it becomes divided into regions. This is not the case with shallow lakes. With a shallow lake, the entire lake may change from clear water to macrophyte dominated to algae dominated, each phase has its own state of equilibrium (Dokulil & Teubner, 2003). Total chlorophyll to phosphorus ratios are different in these various…
Burger, D., Hamilton, D., Pilditch, C., & Gibbs (2007).Benthic nutrient fluxes in a eutrophic polymictic lake. Hydrobiologia. 584, 13-25.
Dokulil, M., & Teubner, K. (2003). Eutrophication and restoration of shallow lakes - the conceptof stable equilibria revisited. Hydrobiologia. 506-509, 29-35.
Farmer, J., Bailey-Watts, a., Kirika, a., and Scott, C. (2006).
Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 4 (1): 45-56.
Turnbull Ethno Colin Turnbull's Ethnography
On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned. Namely, the degree to which the people of the Mbuti tribes may have been exposed to the larger intersection with the modern world as a result of Turnbull's first work is illustrative of the way that research can actually interfere with and alter the course of its subject's experience. To an extent, the ethnography may be a double-edged sword, with its apparent benefits through immersion taking on troubling implications where the researcher's immersion itself becomes a factor in shaping data and outcomes. In addition to distorting intended findings, this also calls into question various ethical concerns where scientific examination is concerned. It is conceivable to argue that an ethnography such as that crafted by Turnbull may have eschewed proper ethical considerations…
Garson, J. (2006). Ethnographic Research. North Carolina State University. Online at .
Turnbull, C. (1983). The Mbuti Pygmies: Change and Adaptation. Thomson Learning.
Nursing Culture Overcoming Barriers to Change Introduction
Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change Introduction and Theoretical Framework This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of public and private health systems. In an era characterized by increasing calls for more efficient approaches to healthcare delivery and accountability on the part of healthcare providers, there is a growing need for identifying opportunities to overcome organizational barriers to change that facilitate the implementation and sustainment of evidence-based practices over time. In order to accomplish this challenging enterprise, the nature of existing organizational barriers must be better understood, an issue that directly relates to the problem to be considered by the study proposed herein and which is discussed further below. Statement of the Problem According to Mannion, Davies and Marshall et al. (2005), the results of much of the research to date have identified a relationship between nursing culture and…
Banyard, V.L., & Miller, K.E. (1998). The powerful potential of qualitative research for community psychology. American Journal of Community Psychology, 26(4), 485.
Burton, S., & Steane, P. (2004). Surviving your thesis. New York: Routledge.
Dennis, C., & Harris, L. (2002). Marketing the e-business. London: Routledge.
Department of Health. (2000). The NHS plan: A plan for investment, a plan for reform. London:
Archaeology is a social science, with an emphasis on the word science. This means that the work that is conducted is done in a systematic acquisition of new knowledge about nature and the body of already existing knowledge gained. The scientific method is based on careful observation and the testing of theories by experiments. Archaeology uses these scientific procedures to study antiquities such as the remains of buildings or monuments of an early age, inscriptions, implements, written manuscripts and other relics. An archaeological excavation, therefore, consists of a process including an initial site survey, breaking the area to be excavated into quadrants, carefully removing soil, recording precise locations of objects and features or provenance, marking and photographing each incremental soil layer (every piece of information retrieved from the site must be related to the layers, finds and structures around it, so that the complex relationships that contribute to the interpretation…
Electronic Monitoring Devices in Corrections
("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.) House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly spread over to a number of other offender populations in a lot of jurisdictions. Depending on the nature of crime committed by the offenders, home confinement has been designed with various degrees of stages of restrictions. These can vary from ordinary curfews to complete confinement. For instance, the home confinement program of the Federal courts extends three separate levels of restrictions under the U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services, 2000. Under the first level ie., curfew, it requires the program participants to stay at home daily during certain time periods. Under the second level house arrest it requires on the part of the participants to stay at home round the clock save for attending to work, school, treatment etc. which must be…
Black, Matt; Smith, Russell G. (n. d.) "Electronic Monitoring in the Criminal Justice System"
No. 254. Retrieved 28 March, 2008 at http://www.aic.gov.au/publications/tandi2/tandi254.pdf
Caputo, Gail. (2004) "Intermediate Sanctions in corrections"
Clear, Todd R; Cole, George F. (2005) "American Corrections"
Disaster Medical Assistance Teams Dmat
This would likely have resulted in a long delay in raising suitable support to those health care professionals already at the disaster site. Duties of the DMAT The initial duties of the DMAT were to assist the nursing team at Charlotte egional Medical Centre as most nurses there had been on duty for around 40 hours. This was due to the problems which relief staff had in getting to the facility and also the problems which had been caused at the hospital due to the power failures and the structural damage that had been inflicted on the hospital (Cohen and Mulvaney). This initial aid that the DMAT provided was invaluable, as if they had not been so well prepared and arrived so early there would have been far greater pressure on the staff at the hospital, which would have greatly reduced the quality of care which the patients received. By…
Cohen, Sharon S. And Karen Mulvaney. "Field observations: Disaster Medical Assistance Team response for Hurricane Charley, Punta Gorda, Florida, August 2004." Disaster Management and Response 3.1 (2005): 22-27.
Mace, Sharon E., Jaszmine T. Jones and Andrew I. Bern. "An analysis of Disaster Medical Assistance Team (DMAT) deployments in the United States." Prehospital Emergency Care 11 (2007): 30-35.
McEntire, David a. Disaster Response and Recovery: Strategies and Tactics for Resilience. Indianapolis: Wiley, 2007. 156-157.
South Florida Regional DMAT FL 5 / IMSuRT South. 2007. South Florida Regional DMAT FL5. 31 October 2007 http://www.fl5dmat.com/ .
Attributes of the Ideal in
"The scheduling of courses in higher education institutions is already a challenge and considerable thought must be given to the development of a scheduling format for blended courses, which allows for meaningful and flexible reduction of classroom time" (Vaughan, Conclusion section,¶ 1) to best realize the benefits and overcome the challenges accompanying blended learning, leadership needs to be exhibited by those in administrative positions in higher education institution. "This leadership consists of three interrelated core elements: Vision, interpersonal skills, and courage. (Vaughan, Conclusion section,¶ 4) Leaders must also possess the necessary interpersonal skills to work collaboratively with others in and outside of changes and transitions in higher learning. "This involves the ability to share ideas but also the willingness to listen to contrary views"(Vaughan, Conclusion section,¶ 4). Leaders, as students, also need to demonstrate the courage to "stay the course" when they have to make hard choices. They Effective in…
The Columbia World of Quotations. (1996). Columbia University Press. New York. Retrieved January 31, 2009 from www.bartleby.com/66/.
Haig, Brian D. (1996-2004). Grounded theory as scientific method. University of Canterbury. Retrieved January 31, 2009 at http://www.scu.edu.au/schools/gcm/ar/arp/grounded.html
Becirovic, Selma.(2004, March 4). The ideal education for me (Editorial). The Post-Standard (Syracuse, NY). The Herald Co. Retrieved January 31, 2009 from HighBeam Research: http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-113912156.html
Information processing. (N.d.). State of New South Wales through the Department of Education and Training and Charles Sturt University. Retrieved January 31, 2009 at http://hsc.csu.edu.au/pro_dev/teaching_online/how_we_learn/information.html
Threat Analysis A Foreign Intelligence Entity (FIE) can be delineated as any identified or suspected foreign organization, individual, or group, whether private, public, or governmental, that undertakes intelligence activities to obtain United States information, block or damage U.S. intelligence gathering, impact U.S. policy, or mess up U.S. systems and programs. In particular, this term takes into account an international terrorist organization and also a foreign intelligence and security service.[footnoteef:1] The FIE considered in this essay is Pakistani's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI). Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) is the nation's biggest of its five intelligence services. Pakistan is deemed to be one of the fast-paced and rapidly developing nations in the [1: Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE, 2017.] South Asian expanse. Owing to the country's strategic positioning in the core of all the nuclear adversaries, it had grown and develop to become of the best intelligence services…
Capriz, Marco, and Kelly George. "Pakistan Inter Services Intelligence Directorate." (2014).
Center for Development of Security Excellence. "Counter Intelligence Awareness Glossary." CDSE. (2017). Retrieved from: http://www.cdse.edu/documents/toolkits-fsos/ci-definitions.pdf
Pakistan Defence. "ISI Pakistan Inter-Services Intelligence". (2006). Retrieved from: https://defence.pk/pdf/threads/isi-pakistan-inter-services-intelligence.551/
Roberts, Mark J. Pakistan's Inter-Services Intelligence Directorate: A State within a State?. NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV WASHINGTON DC INST FOR NATIONAL STRATEGIC STUDIES, 2008.
Eyes Chiapas Mattiace Shannan L
57). Ironically, this method of containment failed: being tied to the national party raised rather than inhibited the political awareness of tribes such as the Tojolabal. In the 1950s and the 1960s, the programs of the National Indigenous Institute (INI) continued the official assimilationist policy of the Mexican government. debate raged as to the question if traditional ways of life could or should be preserved, while Mexico strove to 'advance' economically in the world community. There also the question if indigenous people's function in government should be participatory or if the tribes should have regional or local autonomy. Still, the NIH, for all of its many flaws, kept alive indigenous political organization, dialogue, and cohesion. During the 1970s, the NIH became less assimilation-focused in nature and more populist in quality, given the liberal policies of President Luis Echeverria. Echeverria reflected the dual consciousness of class and indigenous culture advocated by…
As well as providing insight into the specific struggles of the Tojolabals, as learned through her field observations, Mattiace chronicles the attitudinal patterns of resistance and containment that have categorized the relationship of the Mexican state with indigenous peoples. In the 1930s the separatist political organizations of native tribes were forced by the ruling government to become members of the national party. There was a move to create a singular, fused Mexican identity, culturally and through the use of government influence (Mattiace, 2003, p.57). Ironically, this method of containment failed: being tied to the national party raised rather than inhibited the political awareness of tribes such as the Tojolabal.
In the 1950s and the 1960s, the programs of the National Indigenous Institute (INI) continued the official assimilationist policy of the Mexican government. A debate raged as to the question if traditional ways of life could or should be preserved, while Mexico strove to 'advance' economically in the world community. There also the question if indigenous people's function in government should be participatory or if the tribes should have regional or local autonomy. Still, the NIH, for all of its many flaws, kept alive indigenous political organization, dialogue, and cohesion. During the 1970s, the NIH became less assimilation-focused in nature and more populist in quality, given the liberal policies of President Luis Echeverria. Echeverria reflected the dual consciousness of class and indigenous culture advocated by radicals. However, a series of crises affected Mexico during the 1970s and 1980s, beginning with an agrarian crisis in the 1970s and a financial crisis during the early 1980s. This inhibited state control of agricultural organizations, as well as bolstered the opposition party. The estrangement from the national government of indigenous organizations sowed the seeds for the Zapatista movement.
The problem with Mattiace's thesis is that it tends to separate indigenous rights from poverty. A central contention even of the Tojolabal leaders is that the two issues are inseparable. Mattiace's stress that a shift occurred from a class focus to a culture focus in revolutionary movements belies the fact that so many issues require both factors to be addressed, such as the issue of land reform, as was manifest during the Tojolobal's brief period of self-governance (Mattiace, 2003, pp. 26-28). Mattiace admits that indigenous culture and class-based rights arguments are inseparable in the worldview of most Tojolabals themselves, and to some degree her typology of class-based and indigenous-focused movements seems more academic, and imposed from the outside, rather than a real reflection of political life. However, her call at the end of the book for a resurgence of the type of political consciousness of the Zapatista movement is welcome, as is her insight into a little-known culture of the Tojolabal.
Port and Harbor Planning Within Urban Areas as They Pertain to Coast Guard Facilities
Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Planning With Environmental Assessment and Coast Guard Facilities Port planning is a multifaceted project that involves technical, operational, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The projects may range from terminal rehabilitation until altering the whole area into a communal park, involving several different aspects in economic, social, cultural, ethical, and environmental goals. Every area has unique resources, which need to be incorporated into the whole planning process based on the local legal regulation. As with differences in geographical characteristics, it is necessary to find particular approach to the short- and long-term goals of the port, and every detailed construction or facilities provided. The port and harbor must meet the need on how to convert the urban area into a beneficial site as well as to maintain its original characteristics of the landscape including - and without overlooking - the resident people's objectives for the future. It…
Leverburgh Waterfront Planning Brief. 2001. European and Development Services. http://www.w-isles.gov.uk/lever00.htm.(Apr1, 2002).
Management Measurement For Marina and Recreational Boating. 1997. Guidance Specifying Management Measures for Sources of Nonpoint Pollution in Coastal Waters. EPA-840-B-93-001c January 1993. http://www.epa.gov/owow/nps/MMGI/Chapter5/index.html .(Apr1, 2002)
Nicholas, Francis W. In Christian Charles M. And Harper, Robert A. 1982. Managing the Urban Physical Environment. Modern Metropolitan System. Charles E. Merrill Pub. Pp. 332-359.
Port of San Francisco Strategic Plan. http://sfgov.org/sfport/PortMissionFY01_02.pdf .(Apr1, 2002)
How Gender Impacts Our Lives
Gender Differences in Our Society The study published by Eurekalert! The Global Source for Science News entitled "Women most effective leaders for today's world" (2003) states that according to the findings of a study in Psychological Bulletin, 129(3), a meta-analysis indicates that "on average, women in management positions are somewhat better leaders than men in equivalent positions." In my own personal experience, I have found that I can agree with this finding but only in certain situations: in some of the places where I have worked, I have found the women managers are more effective but in other places where I have worked, I've preferred men leaders. The context, I think, is important and I do not feel that both genders are equally effective at all leadership positions across the board. In my field observation of my friend, a girl my own age, I asked how her gender impacted her…
Women most effective leaders for today's world. (2003). Eurekalert! Retrieved from https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2003-08/nu-wme080403.php
Universal Triage System in Emergency
Our study is however geared towards the assessment of applicability of the universal triage system in emergency clinical work. The current triage systems are somehow one-sized-fits it all in their design (Veenema,2007).He points out that the main problem with the existing triage methodologies is the fact that they are not tailored for all situations such as weapons victims but are just normal pediatric scenarios. This therefore means that some of the components of the various triage systems are most likely to fail under certain circumstances as a result of the disparity in the physiological baselines used in coining the various triage systems.Veenema then ponders if the solution tom these dilemmas are held in the coining and adoption of a universal triage system. Questions The research questions that are to be used as the basis of forming hypothesis for the research they are: Hypothesis 1: Does the use a universal triage…
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine.( 1993a) Triage (policy document).
Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (1993b)). A National Triage Scale for Australian Emergency Departments (position paper).
Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians. (1999) Canadian Emergency Department Triage and Acuity Scale. Journal of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians, 1, 1-24
George, J.E. (1995) Triage protocols. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 21, 65-66
Nursing Patient-Centric Communication There Are
ibliography Mendes, IA, Trevizan, MA, Noqueira, MS, Mayashida, M. (2000) Humanistic Approach to Nursing Communication: The Case of hospitalized Adolescent Female. Rev ras Enferm (2000) Jan-Mar, 53(1):7-13. Williams, Carol A. & Gossett, Monette T. (2001) Nursing Communication: Advocacy for the Patient or Physician" Clinical Nursing Research Vol. 10 No. 3 332-340 (2001) Online available at http://cnr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/3/332. Colon-Emeric, Cathleen (2006) Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research Vol. 16 NO. 2, 1713-188 (2006) Vaartio, H. et al. (2006)Nursing Advocacy: How is it Defined by Patients and Nurses, What does it Involve and How is it Experienced? Scand J. Caring Sci 2006 S. ept;20(3):282-92. Tfouni, LV; de Carvalho, EC; Scochi, CG (1991) Discourse, institution, power: an analysis of the nurse patient interaction 0 Rev Gaucha Enferm 1991 Jan;12(1):20-5. Jarrett, N. And Payne, S. (1995) A Selective Review of the Literature…
Mendes, IA, Trevizan, MA, Noqueira, MS, Mayashida, M. (2000) Humanistic Approach to Nursing Communication: The Case of hospitalized Adolescent Female.
Rev Bras Enferm (2000) Jan-Mar, 53(1):7-13.
Williams, Carol A. & Gossett, Monette T. (2001) Nursing Communication: Advocacy for the Patient or Physician" Clinical Nursing Research Vol. 10 No. 3 332-340 (2001) Online available at http://cnr.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/10/3/332 .
Colon-Emeric, Cathleen (2006) Patterns of Medical and Nursing Staff Communication in Nursing Homes: Implications and Insights From Complexity Science. Qualitative Health Research Vol. 16 NO. 2, 1713-188 (2006)
Bicycle Messengers Bicyclists in the City
Bicycle Intervention Bicycle Messengers in New York City: Interventions for Greater Safety and Success With over eight-million inhabitants, nearly one million separate businesses, and a geographic spread of over three-hundred square miles, New York City is the largest and one of the densest urban areas in the United States (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). The streets are heavily trafficked, the business needs are intense and hurried, and the growth of the city in terms of both its population and its economy will continue to make the city more densely packed and more quickly paced over the coming decade (U.S. Census Bureau, 2012). Spatially, physically, and economically, New York City is both constrained and explosive, tightly bound into its geographic borders, street patterns, etc. But also still growing at a rapid pace, and as such it provides a highly interesting and complex context within which to situate this research. It is also…
Cowan, K. (2012). Cost of living comparisons. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://www.payscale.com/cost-of-living-comparison.html
Fincham, B. (2004). Bicycle couriers in the "new" economy. Cardiff University School of Social Sciences (Working Paper 46).
Gehring, A. (2009). Dangerous jobs. New York: Skyhorse Publishing.
Gothamist. (2009). New York traffic second worst in nation. Accessed 26 April 2012. http://gothamist.com/2009/07/09/new_york_traffic_congestion_second.php
Ecstasy and Club Drugs
Club Drugs & Ecstasy "Though some researchers have indicated club drug users are more likely to be poly-drug users, there remains little known about the prevalence and specific combinations of the substances they use…" (Grov, et al., 2009, p. 848). The use of club drugs in the United States has been a problem for healthcare agencies and law enforcement for many years. The focus of research on the use of club drugs (notably ecstasy) in most articles is on "rave" events, where loud music and drug use is typical. This paper reviews and critiques the literature related to the use and abuse of club drugs. The Literature on Club Drugs and the Issues Associated with Club Drug Usage How extreme is club drug use in Chicago? A profile of adult club drug use was measured by Michael Fendrich and colleagues and published in the peer-reviewed journal Addiction (Fendrich, et al.,…
Banta-Green, Caleb, Goldbaum, Gary, Kingston, Susan, Golden, Matthew, Harruff, Richard,
and Logan, Barry K. (2005). Epidemiology of MDMA and Associated Club Drugs in the Seattle Area. Substance Use & Misuse, Vol. 40, 1295-1315.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2010). Ecstasy Overdoses at a New Year's Eve
Rave -- Los Angeles, California, 2010. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 59(22).
Skateboard park, urban center Date and time of your observations: Saturday, 4PM Why you chose the setting: The setting is close by, but it still offers insight into a…
Indeed, during my second observation, which would occur during peak commuter hours, between 7:30 and 8:30 AM on a Thursday, I would see this process repeated 7 times. Trains…
There seemed to be a certain class-based attitude in their behavior, as if they were asserting their right to be in the park, over the largely more affluent playground-goers…
Sociology - Counseling
Wake Up; Take a Shower; Take Breakfast With Other Family Members Arrive at the bank; pick a waiting ticket; interaction with service staff; a member of staff in the…
St. Patrick's Cathedral: Field Trip Patrick's Cathedral's design is not only original but also distinct. Its proportions are also evidently harmonious. With impressive twin spikes characterizing its west facade…
Family and Marriage
Behavior Experiment The experiment took place in a busy office building at around five o'clock in the evening. It started on the ground floor and involved walking into an…
Customer Service Triage at Home Depot Despite the self-service checkout lanes being staffed by an associate to manage all four of the self-service locations, with custom orders and big-ticket…
H Hypothesis The general field of human resources has become more and more difficult as well as more perilous. That is not just a simple generalized statement made for…
Clay County The Field Experience Project that I participated over this course has enlightened me in many ways. Having a different perspective as an observer was a very valuable…
Seat Belt Usage Field Work Timeline and Budget The focus of this research proposal is to examine and analyze seat belt usage by examining demographic and geographic information to…
counting or documenting observations," according to authors Maxfield and Babbie. The descriptive study in this paper relates to a controversy in a small town near my home, in which…
Standard Construction of Modern High Field Magnets Used in Modern Nuclear Magnetic esonance Devices Nuclear magnetic resonance devices are playing an increasingly important role in healthcare and research today.…
Additionally, many were on their cell phones; it seemed like they were purposely trying to find ways to keep them from interacting with each other. This showed a clear…
A number of modifications have occurred within the area of arts instruction, leading to a redesigning of the whole curriculum. A few transformations involve modern trends like literacy training…
Business managers work in varied fields from security companies to tech startups, to managing the careers of celebrities and sports starts. In essence, it is a person who has…
From this I would take advice from the history of the Swiss -- I would require all children were taught the use of weapons in adolescence, and that upper…
Mythology - Religion
Being a Muslim is an overriding cultural feature that cuts across a large number of races and nationalities, but many have the same common traits of gender segregation, emphasis…
Biblical Principles in the Field of Psychology Biblical Principles in Psychology Subject Code This question is still a subject of debate in the academia. One of the two definitions…
Human esource Issues in Health Field The field of health human resources in the health field deals with issues such as planning, performance, management, development, information, retention, and research…
One solution to enhance learning might be to require that all officers take the initial course and to then develop online content for 'follow-up' briefings and re-testing of knowledge…
Participant observation can, for purposes of simplicity, "be placed on a continuum with 'passive' participant observation at one end of the continuum, and 'active' participant observation at the other"…
Interview Sessions What types of behavior did you notice? In hindsight -- by focusing on what you did -- what types of behaviors might you have failed to notice?…
Elementary School ESL Teacher Befitting the United States of America's unique status as a cultural melting pot, the nation's educational system has learned to adapt its traditional method of…
His neck, a mechanical part of him, has become so overwrought by the pressures and complexity of technology that it has stopped working. Whole segments of the American nation…
formed on properly executed observations does make out efficient teachers as well as practices itself. Teachers' accomplishes on the classroom surveillance mechanism of appraisal system dependably envisage the attainment…
The preschool period is generally considered to be three to five years of age (4). I observed a five-year-old female playing at a playground. The tasks witnessed were running,…
Forest Date and time of observations: May 13, 2017; 12 pm to 4 pm. Why the setting was chosen: The selection of the setting was largely informed by the…
eferences http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=101936297 Blocher, DH (2000). The Evolution of Counseling Psychology. New York: Springer. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=102034235 Darlington, Y., & Scott, D. (2002). Qualitative esearch in Practice: Stories from the Field /…
In terms of the management of the risk, this can be completed through either one or more of the following techniques: (1) mitigation of the risks; (2) transfer of…
My learning in the field of qualitative research 1. In terms of qualitative methodology and the problems of scientism/positivism, what does it mean to recognize the limits of exactitude…
Audits In the field of nursing, both qualitative and quantitative data are useful and needed. The qualitative approach comes much from the patient and/or stakeholders. How does the patient…
dream of having a career in field of Actuarial Science started at a young age. This shaped my thinking by wanting to understand logic and the way conclusions were…
Marine Biology & Drones Drones are being used with increasing frequency in the study of marine life, including for population counts, and behavioral studies. The news media has offered…
Motivation in the WorkplaceIntroductionThere are a variety of ways that an I-O consultant could go about determining the underlying motivational problem in a workplace. One method would be to…
Clinical Experience The American Nurses Association (2008) define nursing informatics as the mixture of computer and information science and nursing towards improving healthcare delivery and patient outcomes. Nursing informatics…
Evidence-ased Nursing and Research In the field of nursing, understanding how to apply specific research can help everyone to provide more effective care to patients. This is because the…
Nursing Informatics / Annotated Bibliography & Brief Critique Harris, R., Bennett, J., and Ross. F. (2013). Leadership and innovation in nursing seen through a historical lens. Journal of Advanced…
ILE L100 I was pretty enthusiastic when I returned to the 56th ACT having been ordered to assume responsibility as the deputy brigade commander (DCO). I felt proud and…
Evidently, the neighborhood patrons are the 'insiders' while the strangers are considered 'outsiders in the cafe; the business group is categorized between these two groups (insiders and outsiders). What…
Education - Teaching Methods
Post-Observation of Field Teaching Experiences The purpose of this paper is to provide a description concerning what was learned about teaching and learning in the course in general and…
) However, additional observation visits in the site could help provide more in-depth information that will yield sub-categories for the category, "Activities in the skateboard park." Under this category,…
memory as a child, when I was just four years old, continues to haunt me until this day nearly 50 years later. The eldest of five children in an…
However, the ability to criticize and gain depth into a subject was the key factors involved in qualitative research. In order for qualitative research methods to be applied to…
Education - Computers
However, the researchers can visualize the 'holistic' strategies even involve wide scope for utilization of computing resources as the basic instruments for collection and analyzing the data. (Willis; Jost,…
quality where data is gathered through interviews, surveys and observations, while quantitative study establishes its results on the basis of surveys, questionnaires and statistical data. A quantitative study "Study…
This study demonstrates that different total P. fraction releases may differ between two bodies of water under similar oxygen conditions (Kisand & Noges, 2003). This study is important in…
On the other hand, this return to a people made largely more recognized by Turnbull's first ethnography does suggest something about the ethnography itself where anthropological purpose is concerned.…
Business - Management
Nursing Culture: Overcoming Barriers to Change Introduction and Theoretical Framework This program of study continues personal research and professional practice in the field of nursing within the area of…
Archaeology is a social science, with an emphasis on the word science. This means that the work that is conducted is done in a systematic acquisition of new knowledge…
("Home Confinement / Electronic Monitoring," n. d.) House arrest or home confinement started as a program to handle particularly as a sentencing substitute meant for drunk drivers, but rapidly…
This would likely have resulted in a long delay in raising suitable support to those health care professionals already at the disaster site. Duties of the DMAT The initial…
"The scheduling of courses in higher education institutions is already a challenge and considerable thought must be given to the development of a scheduling format for blended courses, which…
Threat Analysis A Foreign Intelligence Entity (FIE) can be delineated as any identified or suspected foreign organization, individual, or group, whether private, public, or governmental, that undertakes intelligence activities…
57). Ironically, this method of containment failed: being tied to the national party raised rather than inhibited the political awareness of tribes such as the Tojolabal. In the 1950s…
Integrated Urban Port and Harbor Planning With Environmental Assessment and Coast Guard Facilities Port planning is a multifaceted project that involves technical, operational, economic, social, and environmental aspects. The…
Gender and Sexuality
Gender Differences in Our Society The study published by Eurekalert! The Global Source for Science News entitled "Women most effective leaders for today's world" (2003) states that according to…
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Observation of a history and social science lesson.
Observation of a History and Social Science Lesson Gena Beamon University of Phoenix Curriculum Constructs and Assessment: History and Social Science MAT 531CA Bernardita Beni Murphy-Jobes April 7, 2009 Ms. Ceja’s third grade classroom was observed at 95th Street Elementary School, which is apart of the Los Angeles Unified School District located in Los Angeles, California. During the observation Ms. Ceja stated History and Social Studies requirement was required weekly for ninety minutes. The lesson plans duration were thirty minutes […]
Observation of ADHD Child
When I was thinking about which topic to choose for my paper, I had no definite ideas until I looked in Schoology. The first thing I read was Achieving Success with ADHD: Secrets of an Afflicted Professor of Medicine by David B. Sachar#####. My mind was immediately made up. Why? I HAVE ADHD! I never realized it before, it has a name and it is more than some kid in your class who will not sit still who drives you […]
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Observation of Infertility Among Reproductive Aged Women
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Toddler Observation (papers)
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Adolescence Psychology Observation
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Infant Toddler Observation
Observation of a Nine-Month Old Infant, Susie Stranger anxiety is a common expression of fear to unfamiliar adults in infants six months to two years old (Berk, 2013). In this paper, I will discuss my experience in holding and observing an infant who is unfamiliar with strangers along with my expectations and assumptions of my experience with her. This will include describing physical, cognitive, and psychosocial characteristics. I will also be integrating the course readings while discussing how this experience […]
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Iddo Tavory’s Summoned: identification and religious life in a Jewish neighborhood builds up on the understanding of readers regarding social life and interaction, culture, and mainly identity by studying one particular group- the Jewish orthodox living in the Beverly-La Brea, South east of Hollywood. It is an example of symbolic interactionist ethnography that express how the interaction of humans with their surrounding will help us understand human beings more. It can also be seen as an auto ethnography in which […]
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Essays on Observation
Faq about observation.
100 Research Paper Topics and How to Choose One to Write About
What is the hardest part of creating a compelling research paper? Despite common belief, writing is not the biggest challenge on your way to success. However, trying to come up with a good research paper topic can be more complicated than writing research itself.
When choosing a topic, students can encounter a variety of issues, including a lack of creativity, insufficient essay writing skills and experience, or a lack of research material on the chosen topic. These and other issues may get in your way, holding you back from creating genuinely engaging thesis topics.
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How can you overcome these problems in the process of choosing a topic? In this article, we are going to give you some tips that will make the whole process easier, and share a list of 100 good research topics from our custom essay writing services team.
How to Choose a Topic for a Research Paper
If you feel stuck with choosing a relevant and engaging topic, find a step by step guide that will help you generate interesting research topics with ease below:
1. Observing Your Interests
What really makes a research topic good is your genuine interest in it. Picking a topic that you are personally interested in can motivate you to do an in-depth study of it, and can make the whole writing process much easier.
Study your range of interests – break them down into separate topics and choose one that can create the most interest in terms of revealing the topic. If the topic is controversial, then it will be a good idea to define your point of view right away — to help refine the direction of your research.
Also, be sure not to pick research essay topics solely on what’s trending. While trending topics will definitely be relevant, the lack of interest can affect the overall quality of the work.
2. Make Sure You Have Enough Information to Write a Paper
If your genuine interest in a specific matter should be at the top of your priority list when choosing a topic, the availability of enough information should be your second highest priority.
Having a sufficient amount of materials to write your research paper is vital. Some of the resources you can look for are books, different scientific journals, online sources like blogs and websites, encyclopedias, etc. The more resources you can find, the easier it will be to create your own work.
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The more specialized and newer the topic for research is, the less information you are likely to find on it. Therefore, choosing such a topic, you have to be ready to face certain challenges in the process of writing. However, this does not mean that you should opt for easy research paper topics. Keep in mind that a good topic should not be too simple nor broad.
3. Follow Your Teacher’s Guidelines
Last but not least, don’t forget to keep your teacher’s instructions in mind when picking a topic. The requirements and limitations may vary depending on your academic level and your teacher’s preferences, and you have to bear them in mind. Also, it is always a good idea to confirm your topic with your teacher before you start writing—if they think it might be a poor choice, they will likely give you some guidance and will appreciate that you asked regardless.
To give you some extra tips on the choice of a topic, here are the main features that characterize good topics for research papers:
- Relevance – the chosen topic has to be relevant for potential readers;
- Specificness – objectives (as well as expected results) of your study have to be focused and clear;
- Importance – a good topic should bring value and impact to your field of study—or the community as a whole;
- Trendiness – topics that are trending tend to spark more interest among readers due to their yet unexplored potential;
- Originality – it is important to focus your work on something that hasn’t been researched before to ensure scientific novelty and originality.
Keep In Mind
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We also recommend that you read the article on symbolism in literature . Many of our readers found it interesting.
100 Examples of Interesting Research Paper Topics
Now that you know what a good topic should look like, let us give you some great research paper ideas to help you get on track. In the list below, you can find the top 100 interesting topics to research, selected by our team.
College Research Paper Topics
College students first face research paper writing assignments during the first year. These topics to write about will do for the freshmen!
- Tutor competency examinations VS degree requirements alone
- Separation of church & state against religion’s contribution to the public good
- Fairness to families who have to pay twice for education
- Drug & alcohol abuse among teenagers
- High rates of pregnancy among college girls
- The desire to commit suicide while studying in college
- A right to choose courses a student believes are important
- Ability to skip useless classes
- Reasons why young adolescents in the United States should adopt the British custom of running a “gap year” between high school & college
- College education and funding
High School Research Paper Topics
High school teachers do not assign research papers often. Still, explore this list of topics to write about to be on the wave! Use these as good research topics for middle school as well.
- Bilingual education compared to the traditional approach
- Policing public schools
- Permit corporal punishment
- Placement by age & placement by skills
- Students with disabilities should not be allowed to study with their healthy peers
- The problems associated with bullying in the US high schools
- Teacher’s demands against teaching being a service occupation
- Is no child left behind act working?
- Are standardized English tests efficient?
- What are the primary reasons for grade inflation?
Psychology Research Paper Topics for College Students
What about exploring the possible psychology ideas? Be sure to cite papers like this using APA or MLA format.
- Mental disorders, including self-harm and cutting
- Eating disorders in the US community & childhood obesity
- Tourette syndrome: Cause & effects
- Exercising on work time as the way to reduce the level of stress
- Common sleep disorders and ways to resist them
- How can a patient’s family help to deal with schizophrenia?
- What are the biological and psychological roots of sociopathy?
- Is electroshock a legal, effective method of treatment?
- Coma recovery on the mental level
- Describing the pros & cons of modern asylums
Science Research Paper Topics
A scientific study is the heart of any research paper. Discover the top recommended scientific ideas.
- Stem cells to play a crucial role in the medical treatment of various diseases
- Forensic science technology
- Discussing alchemy and the ways it has been implemented
- Obstacles faced by scientists in breaking the sound barrier
- Nuclear energy: Its opportunities & threats
- Technologies available to households to assist them in conserving energy
- The risks & possible adverse outcomes of using nuclear power
- How can registered nurses save babies born before 27 weeks?
- How does breastfeeding improve the infant’s health?
- Is screwing for breast cancer effective?
Religion & Literature Research Paper Topics
This list is for students who love reading. Let us help choose the best literature ideas to analyze?
- Reasons why the Bible should be viewed as literature
- The controversies concerning Shakespearean authorship
- The relationship between Dante and Virgil
- Exploring the Divine Comedy as the world masterpiece
- In-depth analysis of the unusual structure of A Winter’s Tale
- The religious significance of the Quran
- Compare Anna Karenina with Madame Bovary
- Dickens failed with writing a serious, romantic narrative in his novels
- A single true religion
- The metaphysical in Donne’s poetry
Argumentative Research Paper Topics
In argumentative writing, a writer should take a particular position. Choose a debate and think which side you support.
- Unborn victims of violence
- Scientific evidence VS definition of viability
- Reasons to support euthanasia in medical practice
- The Internet makes modern people smarter
- The federal government must regulate information available on the Internet
- Body language is what matters in dating most of al
- Congressional opposition to presidential filibusters
- People infected with HIV should receive free treatment
- Revoking drivers license: Necessity and interpretation
- Animal protection is more important than business needs
Good US History Research Paper Topics
Do you need history research topics for high school students that cover only the United States or the entire world? We have examples of both!*
- The Blackwell Companion to religion in the United States
- A revolution down on the farm of Northern America
- American agriculture: Its social history
- In the past lane: Historical Perspectives on the culture of the US
- The dynamics of American politics: Approaches & explanations
- Presidential campaigns & self-images
- The market revolution: Jacksonian US
- The battle cry of freedom: The Civil War epoch
- Yankees today: Immigrants from Europe
- The guide to the US females in the XIX century
Human Rights & Human Resource Paper Topics
Some of the research topics for high school students include those dedicated to our rights.
- Discrimination in the workplace is the most significant issue of some contemporary companies
- Diversity at the workplace
- Ways to motivate employees to work harder
- Whistleblowing and problems associated with it
- Key performance indicator (KPI): How it works
- Getting rid of stress at the workplace
- Benefit programs every business is obligated to provide
- The impact of wages on the productivity of employees
- Ways businesses can adequately protect their private information
- Strategies companies can use to hire qualified staff better
Law Enforcement Topics for Research Paper
Are you studying in a Law School? Are you attending MBA courses? In both situations, you will need a list of excellent topics on various regulations, legal cases, legislation, etc.
- Racial discrimination: Reasons why people around the world feel the racial injustice
- The way gender discrimination affects law enforcement and regulations in place
- Things they must change to assist officers with getting to the scene of crime quicker
- Typical offenses committed by juveniles
- The impact of racial profiling on the riots
- Border patrol: How do people receive illegal substances into their states when crossing the border?
- Does the government contribute enough to guarantee community protection?
- How do they detonate explosive equipment?
- The amount of time necessary for the police officer to train
- Mass emergencies: Measures to be taken
Business Research Paper Topics
Students who are getting ready to obtain their Business Administration degrees should focus on the following topics:
- Making four generations getting on well with each other in the workplace
- Sticking to the principal regulations of the corporate law
- Features that define a true business leader
- Ensuring positive staff relationships
- Ways to represent shareholders in non-public companies
- Small business & taxation
- Crowdfunding & outsourcing: Contemporary financing techniques
- The advantages of running a small business
- Things that make young startups fail during the first couple of years
- Investing company’s assets into charity: Benefits
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Let’s sum up how to choose a good research paper topic:
- Gather with other students, mates or family members to generate ideas. List each of them.
- Choose 3-5 most relevant concepts, read some general article about each of them to pick your favorite one and make sure there is related information you can use.
- Make sure the topic is manageable and narrow.
- Follow the guidelines specified by your tutor.
Picking the perfect topic for your research paper can be hard. To help you get on the right track, we have outlined 100 interesting research topic ideas. Hopefully this article will help you understand how to create a good topic.
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Home — Essay Samples — Science — Scientific Method — Observation
Essays on Observation
Observation of children free play, understanding observational skills, reflecting on courtroom observations: insights into legal proceedings, reflective essay on courtroom observation, courtroom observation essay: a civil case, an observation of the dance concert performance by clarion university, courtroom observation experience: my experience, analysis of residential areas in sydney: auburn vs. double bay, courtroom observation essay: new haven county courthouse, understanding ethnography based on lee hoffer's understanding, reflections on courtroom observation: analysis and insight, literary analysis of richard wright’s book, native son, assessment of the development process of children, evaluation of the canadian tourist attractions, the benefits of project-based learning in education, methods of improving student learning, narrative methods of observation, learning process using kolb’s learning cycle, micro-ethnography report: observation of the pool area, feeling stressed about your essay.
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- Naturalistic Observation | Definition, Guide & Examples
Naturalistic Observation | Definition, Guide, & Examples
Published on February 10, 2022 by Pritha Bhandari . Revised on December 2, 2022.
Naturalistic observation is a qualitative research method where you record the behaviors of your research subjects in real world settings. You avoid interfering with or influencing any variables in a naturalistic observation.
You can think of naturalistic observation as “people watching” with a purpose.
Table of contents
What is naturalistic observation, types of naturalistic observation methods, how to collect data, data sampling, advantages of naturalistic observation, disadvantages of naturalistic observation, frequently asked questions about naturalistic observation.
In naturalistic observations, you study your research subjects in their own environments to explore their behaviors without any outside influence or control. It’s a research method used in field studies.
Traditionally, naturalistic observation studies have been used by animal researchers, psychologists, ethnographers, and anthropologists. Naturalistic observations are helpful as a hypothesis -generating approach, because you gather rich information that can inspire further research.
Based on his naturalistic observations, he believed that these birds imprinted on the first potential parent in their surroundings, and they quickly learned to follow them and their actions.
Naturalistic observation is especially valuable for studying behaviors and actions that may not be replicable in controlled lab settings.
Naturalistic observations can be:
- Covert or overt: You either hide or reveal your identity as an observer to the participants you observe.
- Participant or non-participant: You participate in the activity or behavior yourself, or you observe from the sidelines.
There are four main ways of using naturalistic observations.
Importantly, all of these take place in naturalistic settings rather than experimental laboratory settings. While you may actively participate in some types of observations, you refrain from influencing others or interfering with the activities you are observing too much.
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You can use a variety of data collection methods for naturalistic observations.
Nowadays, it’s common to collect observations through audio and video recordings so you can revisit them at a later stage or share them with other trained observers. It’s best to place these recording devices discreetly so your participants aren’t distracted by them. This can lead to a Hawthorne effect , where participants change their behavior once aware they’re being recorded.
However, make sure you receive informed consent (in a written format ) from each participant prior to recording them.
You can take notes while conducting naturalistic observations. Note down anything that seems relevant or important to you based on your research topic and interests in an unstructured way.
If you’re studying specific behaviors or events, it’s often helpful to make frequency counts of the number of times these occur during a certain time period. You can use a tally count to easily note down each instance that you observe in the moment.
There’s a lot of information you can collect when you conduct research in natural, uncontrolled environments. To simplify your data collection , you’ll often use data sampling.
Data sampling allows you to narrow down the focus of your data recording to specific times or events.
You record observations only at specific times. These time intervals can be randomly selected (e.g., at 8:03, 10:34, 12:51) or systematic (e.g., every 2 hours). You record whether your behaviors of interest occur during these time periods.
You record observations only when specific events occur. You may use a tally count to note the frequency of the event or take notes each time you see the event occurring.
Naturalistic observation is a valuable tool because of its flexibility, external validity, and suitability for research topics that can’t be studied in a lab.
Because naturalistic observation is a non-experimental method, you’re not bound to strict procedures. You can avoid using rigid protocols and also change your methods midway if you need to.
Naturalistic observations are particularly high in ecological validity , because you use real life environments instead of lab settings. People don’t always act in the same ways in and outside the lab. Your participants behave in more authentic ways when they are unaware they’re being observed, mitigating the risk of a Hawthorne effect .
Naturalistic observations help you study topics that you can’t in the lab for ethical reasons. You can also use technology to record conversations, behaviors, or other noise, provided you have consent or it’s otherwise ethically permissible.
The downsides of naturalistic observation include its lack of scientific control, ethical considerations , and potential for bias from observers and subjects.
Lack of control
Since you perform research in natural environments, you can’t control the setting or any variables . Without this control, you won’t be able to draw conclusions about causal relationships . You also may not be able to replicate your findings in other contexts, with other people, or at other times.
Most people don’t want to be observed as they’re going about their day without their explicit consent or awareness. It’s important to always respect privacy and try to be unobtrusive. It’s also best to use naturalistic observations only in public situations where people expect they won’t be alone.
Because you indirectly collect data, there’s always a risk of observer bias in naturalistic observations. Your perceptions and interpretations of behavior may be influenced by your own experiences, and inaccurately represent the truth. This type of bias is particularly likely to occur in participant observation methods.
When you observe subjects in their natural environment, they may sometimes be aware they’re being observed. As a result, they may change their behaviors to act in more socially desirable ways to confirm your expectations, or the perception of high or low expectations may cause a Pygmalion effect .
Naturalistic observation is a qualitative research method where you record the behaviors of your research subjects in real world settings. You avoid interfering or influencing anything in a naturalistic observation.
Naturalistic observation is a valuable tool because of its flexibility, external validity , and suitability for topics that can’t be studied in a lab setting.
The downsides of naturalistic observation include its lack of scientific control , ethical considerations , and potential for bias from observers and subjects.
You can use several tactics to minimize observer bias .
- Use masking (blinding) to hide the purpose of your study from all observers.
- Triangulate your data with different data collection methods or sources.
- Use multiple observers and ensure interrater reliability.
- Train your observers to make sure data is consistently recorded between them.
- Standardize your observation procedures to make sure they are structured and clear.
Social desirability bias is the tendency for interview participants to give responses that will be viewed favorably by the interviewer or other participants. It occurs in all types of interviews and surveys , but is most common in semi-structured interviews , unstructured interviews , and focus groups .
Social desirability bias can be mitigated by ensuring participants feel at ease and comfortable sharing their views. Make sure to pay attention to your own body language and any physical or verbal cues, such as nodding or widening your eyes.
This type of bias can also occur in observations if the participants know they’re being observed. They might alter their behavior accordingly.
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Home » Observational Research – Methods and Guide
Observational Research – Methods and Guide
Table of Contents
What is Observational Research?
Observational research is a form of research that relies on observations of natural phenomena or human behavior. This type of research is often used to learn more about how people behave and how the environment affects their behavior. Observational studies can be used to study a variety of topics, including health, social behavior, and environmental issues.
What is Observational?
Observation is the act of looking at and analyzing the world around you. It can be done through either your eyes or your mind. Through observation, we can learn about our surroundings and how they work. We can also learn about ourselves and how we interact with the world around us. Observation is an important tool for learning and understanding, and it can be used in a variety of fields.
Observational Research Types
Observational Research is Divided into Five main types:
- Participant Observation
Case studies, archival research.
Naturalistic observation is a research method often used by psychologists and other social scientists. This type of research involves observing subjects in their natural environment, without any interference from the researcher. This allows for a more realistic and unbiased view of the subject’s behavior.
Participant observation is a similar method, but with one key difference: the researcher becomes a part of the environment they are observing. This allows for a more intimate look at the subject’s behavior, but can also introduce bias into the research.
Structured observation is a type of observational research in which the researcher observes the behavior of subjects in a controlled environment. This type of research is often used in laboratory settings.
Case studies are another type of observational research in which the researcher observes the behavior of a small number of subjects over an extended period of time.
Archival research is a third type of observational research in which the researcher looks at records that have been created by other people.
Observational Research Data Collection Methods
There are two main types of observational data collection methods:
Direct observation involves observing people’s behavior without their knowledge. Researchers use this method to collect data about people’s natural behavior in a given setting.
Participant observation involves becoming a part of the group that is being studied. Researchers use this method to collect data about people’s behavior in a given setting while also gaining insight into the culture and social norms of the group.
Observational Data Analysis Methods
Observational Data Analysis Methods are:
Case-control, ecological studies.
Cross-sectional studies compare different groups of individuals at a single point in time. They are useful for studying rare exposures or outcomes, but cannot be used to establish causal relationships.
Cohort studies follow a group of individuals over time. They can be used to study both rare exposures and common outcomes, and can establish temporal relationships between exposure and outcome. However, they are often expensive and time-consuming to conduct.
Case-control studies compare individuals with a particular outcome (cases) to those without that outcome (controls). They are useful for studying rare outcomes, but may be biased if cases and controls are not comparable.
Ecological studies are important for understanding how ecosystems function and how they are affected by human activity. Ecologists use a variety of techniques to study ecosystems, including field observations, experiments, and modeling.
Observational Research Example
One example of observational research is a study conducted by sociologist William Foote Whyte on the effects of neighborhood design on crime rates. In this study, Whyte and his team observed the neighborhoods of two cities
- One with a traditional grid layout
- One with a more modern, suburban layout
And found that the latter had significantly lower rates of crime.
This example demonstrates how observational research can be used to provide valuable insights into human behavior. When done correctly, it can be an extremely powerful tool for understanding the world around us
How to Conduct Observational Research
When conducting observational research, there are several things to keep in mind in order to ensure that the research is conducted properly.
- It is important to have a clear purpose for conducting observational research. This will help to guide the observations and ensure that they are focused on the right things.
- Get permission from your participants. It is important to get explicit permission from the people who you will be observing. This means letting them know that they will be observed, what the purpose of the observation is, and how their information will be used.
- It is important to make sure that the observations are objective and unbiased. This can be accomplished by keeping detailed notes of what is observed and avoiding any personal interpretation of the data.
- Keep your observers hidden. The participants should not be aware of the observers in order to avoid any potential bias in their behavior.
- It is important to document the observations in a clear and concise manner. This will allow others to review the data and verify the results of the observational research.
- Use multiple observers whenever possible.
When to use Observational Research
There are a few things to keep in mind when deciding if observational research is the right method to use.
- It is important to consider what type of data you are trying to collect. Observational research is best suited for collecting data about people’s behavior and actions.
- You need to decide if you want to observe people in their natural environment or in a controlled setting.
- It is important to consider the resources that are available to you. Observational research requires time and effort to set up and carry out. If you have limited resources, it may not be the best option.
Also see Ethnographic Research
Advantages of Observational Research
There are several advantages to using observational research, including the following:
- Observational research can be used to generate hypotheses about relationships between variables. In addition, it can be used to identify potential causes of phenomena.
- It can be used to measure the strength of relationships between variables.
- It can be used to determine the direction of causality between variables.
Also see Focus Groups in Qualitative Research
Disadvantages of Observational Research
Observational research has a number of disadvantages compared to other types of research.
- It is difficult to determine causation from observational data. This is because there are many factors that can influence the results and it is impossible to control for all of them.
- Observational studies can be subject to bias. For example, researchers may be more likely to publish studies that show a positive correlation between two variables, even if the correlation is not actually statistically significant.
- Observational studies are less reliable than randomized controlled trials, which are considered the gold standard for scientific research.
- It can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct.
About the author
I am Muhammad Hassan, a Researcher, Academic Writer, Web Developer, and Android App Developer. I have worked in various industries and have gained a wealth of knowledge and experience. In my spare time, I enjoy writing blog posts and articles on a variety of Academic topics. I also like to stay up-to-date with the latest trends in the IT industry to share my knowledge with others through my writing.
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- Essay on Observation
Good Example Of Field Observation Research Paper
Type of paper: Research Paper
Topic: Observation , Information , Researcher , Data Collection , Criminology , Data Analysis , Nature , Time
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Criminology is one of the fields that rely on research to answer some phenomena. There are different data collection approaches, which criminology researchers could use to evaluate the performance or to understand a specific concept. Field observation is one of these methods. The method entails the collection of data from their natural setting. Investigative experts must adhere to specific elements and procedures when conducting data using the technique. The steps include answering questions that would guide the acceptance and the use of the technique to collect data. The subsequent step would be the determination of the type of field observation technique to use. Criminology researchers could use direct or unobtrusive field observation. The next segment is recording the observations. Field notes have been useful in recording these observations. The tool is useful in answering questions such as the question of who, what, when, and how. Data analysis tools such as Qualitative data analysis (QDA) software, Microsoft OneNote, Scrivener, and Dedoose would be useful in the evaluation of the findings of the observation. The use of the tool would demand the evaluation of its benefits and drawbacks. The advantages of using field observation include its directness and longitudinal nature. On the other hand, the Hawthorne Effect remains the biggest problem of the field observation method. The other issue is the lack of control of the study because of biases and human error. The use of the method is useful in the collection of data, but there is a need for the analysis of its setbacks.
Research in criminology is necessary for the understanding of some phenomenon related to the field. The selection of the methodology depends on the aims of the research. One of the approaches to collecting criminology data for analysis is field observation. The technique entails the collection of statistical information from their natural or non-laboratory settings. This paper examines field observation as a method of collecting data. The paper would focus on the process of conducting field observation, its advantages and disadvantages in a criminology case.
Field observation is a critical qualitative analysis method, which seeks to collect information from participants based on their natural setting. The selection of the use of this data collection is after answering several questions. The top issues a researcher must answer before incorporating this approach include, is the topic sensitive? Is there enough time to collect data? Is it possible to observe the phenomena? Answering the above questions positively would be the first vital step of field observation.
The two major field observation approaches are direct and unobtrusive. The former involves the participants being aware of the exercise. Under direct continuous monitoring, the researcher would record as much behavior as possible. The time allocation approach entails the researcher selecting a place and time randomly before carrying out the research. Conversely, the unobtrusive observation involves secretly observing the behavior of the target population (Alison Bryant, Liebeskind, and Gestin, 2017; Ciesielska, Boström, and Öhlander, 2018). The major unobtrusive observations are behavior trace studies and disguised field observation. Behavior trace studies encompass observation of the things the target population leaves behind. On the other hand, a researcher in the disguised field observation would select to blend with the target group to secretly record behaviors. Criminology researchers utilize any of the above approaches depending on their preferences. However, criminology researchers prefer working in disguise because of the risks of the Hawthorne Effect.
How Field Observations are Conducted
Several elements and procedures must be available when conducting field observation as a research methodology.
The first step is to answer these critical questions “is the topic sensitive?” “Is there enough time to collect data?” “Is it possible to observe the phenomena?” These questions touch on the critical elements that define a field observation research. Proper answers to the above questions would provide proof to the researcher that field observation is the best option. A negative response to the above questions suggests that the selection of the methodology would not yield desirable outcomes.
The next step is the determination of the type of field observation technique to use. There are options for direct and unobtrusive field observation. The selection of the field observation technique would depend on the target population for observation, time, the sensitivity of the matter, and the place for observation. Each of the above field observations has unique features, which the researcher must be aware of before deciding on its inclusion as the method of collecting data.
For instance, in the case of unobtrusive observations, the researcher must operate in secrecy because of the sensitivity of the topic. Research on a stigmatized population would require the researcher to act in secrecy, as exposure would influence the actions of the target population. Covert observation is essential in cases such as offender profiling, where any hint of the observation by the lawbreakers would result in a massive change of character. The researcher could select being a passive observer, a participant-observer, or a full and active participant. For the above reasons, the selection of the type of field observation would depend on the anticipated outcome by the researcher.
Recording of the field operations is a critical step when using field observation as a method of collecting data. A proper record of the observed traits would help eliminate instances of the researcher forgetting the actions in precision. The most significant risk, in this case, is bias and credibility issues. During criminology research, some of the field records include notes and other forms of data collection.
Field notes remain the most crucial field record. The document is factual and comprehensive, and it entails all critical information involving field observation. The approach includes descriptive and reflection notes on what happened in the field. One of the important elements that appear in the note is the question of who, what, when, and how. The reflection segment is important in capturing the thoughts, ideas, and questions of the researcher during the entire exercise. Field note is an important tool in criminology research. The investigative person or body must prepare this document as part of the crime analysis steps.
Other observation recording tools include audio, video, images, and documents. The researcher would utilize audio to reflect and describe the entire process. A video would be critical during the analysis process, as it could be difficult to collect vital data during the fieldwork process. Images are also important in the evaluation of the elements seen in the field. Documents could also turn into focal points during data analysis.
The subsequent step is data management and analysis. The analysis of the information collected is necessary for leading to positive findings. The researcher could select to transcribe the audio or video and record them as text files. Besides, there is the use of software like the Qualitative data analysis (QDA) software to boost data management and analysis Kanygin and Koretckaia, 2021; Michalovich, 2021). . Other possible data analysis tools researchers use under field observation techniques are Microsoft OneNote, Scrivener, and Dedoose. A researcher must conduct extensive research on the available data analysis tools before settling for the best option. In some instances, researchers could select to use manual analysis for simpler projects.
The criminology researcher must ensure the approach adheres to ethical and legal considerations. From the above discussion, criminology researchers prefer covert observations because of their nature of work. However, there are risks of ethical issues with this method. Research standards call for the incorporation of ethical practices when collecting data. Besides, a criminal researcher must seek informed consent. Similarly, the selection of a covert approach would generate debates.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Field Observation
Field observations, like any other form of data collection method, have advantages and disadvantages. A researcher must factor in these elements before selecting to use the technique as a method of collecting data.
Benefits of Field Observation
The first proof of field observation is its directness. A researcher would have the chance of collecting data as they happen. The elimination of the need to ask participants about a phenomenon saves time and the risks of unverified information. The research technique removes the element of artificiality that accompanies the rest of the data collection methods. The direct nature is also critical among participants who might lack the ability to express their opinion.
The longitudinal nature of the approach improves the quality of findings. Unlike the case of approaches such as surveys or experiments, field observation involves the luxury of the extension of the study period. The researcher could choose to prolong the study as part of the strategy to boost the findings. Time is a retraining factor in the case of a survey or experiment. The researcher has to operate within a certain period, unlike in the case of field observation.
Disadvantages Field Observation
The primary con of field observation is the Hawthorne Effect. Participants would likely act differently if they have an idea of being watched (Purssell et al., 2020). The use of direct field observation presents an opportunity for the participants to change their behavior and accommodate the possible wish of the researcher. Besides, it is difficult to observe the behavior of an individual since it changes over time. The credibility of this approach is always in question because of the Hawthorne Effect.
Lack of control is the other risk that accompanies observation. A researcher could exhibit instances of human error when observing and collecting data. The effect of this error would be visible even in the findings. The researcher bias is the other risk. Since the expert records activities according to their observation, there is the risk of the inclusion of wrong information. The subjective nature of the research eliminates the ability of the researcher to collect and present the right information.
The smallness in sample size is the other problem that accompanies field observation. An individual only has the capability of observing a controlled sample size. The subjective nature of the research demands the sample size to be at a minimum. Accordingly, the findings of the research could not be used to represent an entire population authoritatively.
Field observation is one of the most significant methods of collecting data in criminology researches. The vital steps of field observation include preparation, data collection, and data analysis. The approach has advantages and disadvantages, which a criminology researcher must consider before using it to collect data.
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Alison Bryant, J., Liebeskind, K., & Gestin, R. (2017). Observational Methods. The International Encyclopedia of Communication Research Methods , 1-10.
Ciesielska, M., Boström, K. W., & Öhlander, M. (2018). Observation methods. In Qualitative methodologies in organization studies (pp. 33-52). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.
Kanygin, G., & Koretckaia, V. (2021). Analytical Coding: Performing Qualitative Data Analysis Based on Programming Principles. Qualitative Report , 26 (2).
Michalovich, A. (2021). Graduate students’ modes of engagement in computer-assisted qualitative data analysis. International Journal of Social Research Methodology , 1-14.
Purssell, E., Drey, N., Chudleigh, J., Creedon, S., & Gould, D. J. (2020). The Hawthorne effect on adherence to hand hygiene in patient care: a systematic review. Journal of Hospital Infection .
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150+ Top Sociology Research Topics
Updated 02 Dec 2022
Why is it important to choose the right research topic in sociology? There is hardly a student on our planet who intentionally writes and submits poorly written, plagiarized, or uncompleted paper. In most cases, it is a result of constant procrastination caused by lack of motivation and interests. After a few weeks of research, it appears that there is nothing left on sociology research topics. That is why choosing a question, problem, patterns, or phenomenon to research is an essential part of the work which needs time and consideration. Taking the one from lists provided by a tutor is not an option for conscious and motivated students.
The difficulty of choice is becoming more severe within the streaming growth of data scopes.
Research Methods of Sociology
While it is possible to choose your methodology based on your course specifics, it is still recommended to follow one of seven research methods of sociology. These methods involve not only the purpose statement but also structure, composition, and the research methods. Starting from the use of specific surveys to the general observation, you should implement your methodology as justification for your exploration and analysis.
Consider these seven sociology research methods:
- Implementation of Social Surveys . By turning to this method, you add data from the large social groups.
- Identification of The Connections . It studies the causes and effects related to a certain problem.
- Interviews. Collecting information from actual people or specialists dealing with an issue, you make your research reliable.
- Observation & Participation. It usually stands for collection of statistics from a particular group being studied.
- Ethnography. It is a qualitative methodology that focuses on social interactions, beliefs, vision, perceptions, and behavioral patterns.
- Longitudinal Studies. It usually takes time as it focuses on prolonged studies to determine the scope of the problem.
- Focus on Secondary Data Sources. It is a synthesis of information that has been collected by fellow researchers.
What are social science topics?
Social science topics are those that deal with the scientific research into the human society and social relationships. Major disciplines falling into this category are Economics, Geography, History, Archaeology, Anthropology, Politics, Law, Linguistics, Psychology, and Sociology.
What is a sociological topic?
By contrast, essays on sociology are more narrowly focused – they normally deal with the study of the structure, development, and functioning of human society, including social relationships, various social institutions and interactions between them.
What are some good sociology research topics?
Some good research topics in sociology deal with the institution of family and the changes it underwent throughout history up to now, social media and its impact on individuals and society, sociology of gender including that of sexual minorities, social movements and groups, social stereotypes.
Tips on How to Choose a Good Topic for Sociology Research
Choosing a good topic for your sociology research should clearly outline a problem or make an argument that you want to make. It is recommended to avoid too general or vague statements that can be read or understood differently. The trick is to come up with those Sociology topics that inspire you and help your readers to find the solutions. Remember about plagiarism issues by always referencing each source and quote that you have. Here are the steps to consider as you make your choice:
- Think over good ideas as you research your sociology research paper topics.
- Choose only something that inspires you.
- Address relevant social issues.
- Compose a list of keywords that relate to your topic idea.
- Think over relevant sources as you compose your thesis statement.
- Always narrow your topic down to reflect the precise problem.
- Identify sociology research methodology for your paper.
- Provide not only your opinion but the counter-arguments as well.
- Remember to compose your Bibliography in advance as you encounter each useful source.
- Always make your topic's wording related to your thesis statement.
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Sociology Research Topics Ideas
Sociology includes a systematic plan for gathering and analyzing observations about the world. Determine the field that you find exciting. Finding problematic questions is the next step. The last research paper step is determining that there is enough literature on specific topic. Defining the field and unsettled questions will give you an idea of what to start with and how to work on research.
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Sociology Research Paper Topics for College Students
- The reasons for anxiety during the first year of college studies.
- The conflict resolution methods on campus.
- The majority of college internship choices often become biased.
- The modern role of leadership and responsibility.
- The perception of friendship and dependability among college students.
- The role of social movements in making people aware of bullying.
- The modern day role-models versus those of the past decade.
- The changes in the educational field that affect new students.
- Should all students be given access to on-campus medical services?
- What are the ethical limitations of the college parties?
Essay Examples Relevant to College Students Sociology Research
- Conflict Resolution
- College Students
Sociology Research Topics on Family
Review sociology research topics list and choose the one that reflects your personal interests!
- Effects of divorce on children
- How cross-racial adoption affect children and society?
- To what extent should parents influence a child’s behavior?
- How does dingle parenting affect a child?
- Social programs for children who experience difficulties in communication with parents
- Is it possible to raise a healthy child in an unconventional family?
- Peculiarities of parenting at LGBT families
- Gender studies for children: should children learn it from childhood or is it too much?
- Social success middle-class children achieve
- Sociology of familes and marriage
- The work of nannies and expectations of employers
- How to give up helicopter parenting?
Essay Examples Relevant to Family
- Single Parenting
- Same-sex Marriage
Read also: Where to get help writing research papers when the task is too complicated?
Sociology of Nationality and Race
Nationality is an example of the most contradictive topics. It is always hot and actual!
- How did international marriages change within time?
- How did international marriages influence the national consciousness of this children?
- What is the correlation between race and educational level?
- How foreign education influence further professional success?
- The phenomenon of the most common racial stereotypes and how truthful are they?
- How do racial stereotypes affect self-esteem and consciousness?
- The phenomenon of a patriot and its features
- Patriotic sentiment in different countries
- The correlation between social status and patriotism
- How different educational establishments adopt patriotism studies?
- How does nationality affect a career in governmental establishments?
Essay Examples Relevant to Nationality and Race
- Race and Ethnicity
TOP-5 free essay samples on Sociology
- The Great Gatsby By F. Scott Fitzgerald: The American Dream In Modern Society
- Positive And Negative Effects Of Instagram
- Social Stratification In Education
- Advantages And Challenges Of Intercultural Communication
- Gender Discrimination And Racism In The Works Of Virginia Woolf And Brent Staples
Sociology Research Topics on Human Rights
- The role of social sanctions in modern society.
- Can a personality be resocialized?
- Should the concept of social status be considered a violation of human rights?
- The role of social norms in the educational sector.
- How can the human rights conflicts be solved with the help of mediation?
- The religious cults and the human rights legislation.
- Should females have the same workplace rights as male workers?
- The gender stereotypes and the shift of human rights.
- Do aesthetics have a place in the formation of basic human rights?
- Should the ban on spiritual practices be considered a human rights violation?
Essay Examples Relevant to Human Rights
- Human Rights
- Social Norms
- Gender Stereotypes
Sociology of Social Media
Modern sociology research paper topics are here:
- How popular are social networks among different social groups?
- How do social networks influence educational processes?
- Effects of social media on people. Do they make people feel lonely and self-obsessed?
- Social networks addiction
- Is addiction on social networks only applicable to young people?
- The influence of romantic comedies on women
- The correlation between social groups and genre
- How are secure social networks?
- Is it safe to share your personal data via social networks? Who has an interest in your information?
- Correlation between social media type and nationality
- Is blogging becoming a new profession?
- Is anorexia a result of social media marketing? How to prevent it?
- The online ethics versus workplace ethics.
- Does social media lead to depression and anxiety?
- The culture of mass following and the influencers.
- Should the children be allowed on Facebook and Instagram.
- The culture of photography on social media.
Essay Examples Relevant to Social Media
- Social Media
- Effects of Social Media
- Social Networking
Sociology Research Topics Interpersonal Communication
- The use of language and verbal codes in interpersonal communication.
- Why does conflict resolution not always work in interpersonal conflicts?
- The art of data perception.
- The social cognition in preschool children.
- The behavioral patterns encountered online.
- The verbal vs written communication forms.
- The consequences of texting language and communication skills.
- The role of flexibility and motivation in interpersonal patterns.
- How does teamwork affect interpersonal skills?
- The ways how reading affects verbal communication.
Essay Examples Relevant to Interpersonal Communication
- Interpersonal Communication
- Nonverbal Communication
Sociology Research Topics on Stereotypes
- The origins of stereotypical thinking.
- The childhood bias challenges are coming from parents and the social environment.
- Are Italian people more emotional?
- The gender differences in the education and professional career.
- The reasons why people think that college athletes are less smart.
- The negative stigma among the females doing typically male jobs.
- How does social media impact the perception of success?
- The challenges of non-traditional families.
- Modern stereotypes of masculinity and femininity among school children.
- Do politics have a patriarchal nature to them?
Essay Examples Relevant to Stereotypes
Sociology of Gender
- Is there s gender inequality in professional activity?
- Are there man and woman professions?
- Aspects of gender inequality at work and how should this problem be solved?
- The characteristics of gender stereotypes in media
- The gender roles in family
- Homosexuality and nationality: is there a correlation?
- Gender studies for children. At which age children should start asking questions?
- Should gender studies be a part of a study program at school?
- The history of women’s rights in different countries.
- How gender studies affect self-esteem?
- The legalization of LGBT in different families
- The negative perception of single fathers in modern society.
- Should kindergartens implement Scandinavian model of neutral gender?
- The cons and pros of gender identification and mental perception.
- The origins of feminism and the relevant dangers.
- The perception of gender in Latin America.
Essay Examples Relevant to Gender
- Gender Roles
Sociology of Youth Culture
The most involving sociology topics for research among youth. Best ideas relating to hobbies, subcultures, and sports are here:
- The sex issues concerning people under 18. How should problems be solved?
- The sex and relationship education at schools. Should it be a part of a program?
- The phenomenon of bullying. Why teenagers show cruelty?
- Effects and causes of bullying
- Proposal at college. Should young couples wait?
- The concept of hipsters and how does it influence further career choice?
- Sports culture among youth. How to motivate underage to go into sports?
- Subcultures and history of its appearance
- The influence of music and musical education on teens
- Why does nationalism happen among children and youth?
- How to define your social group and hobbies?
- Who are millennials and what to expect from the next generation?
- The impact of modern pop culture on body image.
- Does K-Pop culture and anime lead to feminization of male youth?
- How should the parents settle down cultural conflicts with the teens?
- The role of young influencers on social media?
- How has the youth culture changed during the last two decades?
Essay Examples Relevant to Youth Culture
- Youth Culture
- Sex Education
Research Topics in Educational Sociology
- The cultural role of the books in print for education.
- The family versus school values in the upbringing of modern youth.
- The combination of social work and education.
- The challenges of domestic violence and poor academic results.
- The negative perception of single parenthood students.
- The issue of school and college bullying.
- The use of social media in the classroom.
- Should students be allowed to shape their academic curriculum?
- The social aspect of unintentional plagiarism.
- Do strict grading rubric rules restrict student's creativity?
Essay Examples Relevant to Educational Sociology
- Academic Performance
The Sociology of Social Movements
- The leader versus the group influence in the social movements.
- The role of Twitter and Facebook in social movements today.
- Should anarchy be considered a social movement when it is anti-social?
- The history of the Black Lives Matter movement.
- Should children be allowed to participate in social movements?
- The role of social movements during the Industrialization period in the United States.
- Should the people be granted freedom for any social movement considering the freedom of speech?
- The reasons why certain social movements become forbidden.
- Can online campaigns be considered a social movement?
- The methods of control of social influencers and the large groups.
Essay Examples Relevant to Social Movements
- Social Movements
- Black Lives Matter
Sociology Research Topics on Social Issues and Cultural Biases
- The negative perception of low-income families in the media.
- The issue of child-free or childlessness.
- Do mothers always make better parents in single families?
- The negative effect of divorce on teenage children.
- Should the children be allowed to participate in the voting?
- The role of religious education in a modern consumerist society.
- Do people with a Slavic background perceive labor differently?
- The role of mass media in the formation of social norms.
- The traditions and culture of the Native Americans.
- The Asian intolerance phenomenon in Covid-19 times.
Essay Examples Relevant to Social Issues and Cultural Biases
- Social Issues
- Income Inequality
- Cultural Differences
- Cultural Identity
Medical Sociology Research Topics
- The role of globalization in healthcare access.
- The ethical side of communication between the nurse and the patient.
- Should ethical values be reconsidered in psychiatric hospital care?
- The challenges of living with chronic diseases among African American population.
- The care for the older generation must be promoted with the help of social media.
- The challenges of inequality in the rural areas of the United States.
- The social stigma and the single parenthood healthcare issues.
- Social issues related to the determinants of modern healthcare.
- Should euthanasia be forbidden?
- The challenges of ER nursing and stress management practices.
Essay Examples Relevant to Medical Sociology
- Health Care
Environmental Sociology Topics
- The challenges of Bioregionalism and the problems this environmental branch studies.
- The media bias in the coverage of environmental issues.
- The global changes in politics are leading to environmental challenges.
- Should social ecology be taught in middle school?
- The ways to prevent industrial waste in remote regions of the world.
- The link between consumerism culture and nature.
- The digital era and the use of natural resources.
- The cultural concepts of harmony and balance in India.
- Should Atomic energy be forbidden and green energy sources used instead?
- The portrayal of bio-activists in the modern media.
Save your time with free essay samples on Environmental Education
Food sociology research topics.
- Why is food education crucial for modern society?
- Discussion on how does food traditions connected with health and wellbeing?
- The history of food traditions within different nationalities
- How does food traditions affect national identity?
- Causes of child's obesity. How to prevent it?
- Effects of technology on eating habits people have
- The phenomenon of vegetarian and vegan cultures
- How does meat consumption affect the environment?
- Does traditional family dinner still exist?
- Raw food diet. Is it healing or dangerous?
- Effects of fast food on society
- The culture of brunch and lunch within different countries
Writing custom college paper on interesting sociology research topic for students makes you not only a better student but also a good specialist in a field. Approving or disapproving hypothesis may appear more exciting than it seems. Remember to choose only topics in sociology related to your personal interests. It turns projects into an exciting process. Be it a lab report, essays, research papers , course works, term papers, theses, or other projects, a team of professional writers is always there to help you. Request a sample now - check out how easy it is.
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154 hot astronomy research topics for a-grade papers.
Do you have a college astronomy paper or essay and have been wondering how to get the best topic? You might also be stuck with the paper, wondering how to go about it.
The truth about astronomy is that getting interesting space topics is never easy, but how do you address the challenge? There is no need to worry anymore because we are here to help.
In this post, we list 154 astronomy paper topics and further highlight the traits of a great research paper. Why get content with standard or low-quality paper when you can get the best in your class by checking out the guide and topics, as well as getting lab report help ?
What Is Astronomy?
Before looking at the leading space science topics for your university assignment, let’s start with the definition. Astronomy is the study concerned with researching and understanding everything that takes place beyond the earth’s atmosphere. Although the advances in technology, especially on telescopes, satellites, and manned space vehicles, have helped people to peep deeper into space, this is just a scratch on the surface. There is a lot more waiting to be explored, including the controversial question, “Is there life on other planets?”
Characteristics Of A Good Astronomy Research Paper
From the definition of astronomy, it is clear that you can have a long list of astronomy project topics or ideas. Once you have picked the preferred option from our research topics in cosmology, the next step is preparing your paper. Here are the main characteristics of a good school research paper in astronomy:
- Systematic: This means that your research paper should be structured per clearly defined rules. So, students should start by reviewing requirements by their professors or teachers and think creatively of how to make their papers professional.
- Logical: This implies that the student carefully reasons all the points to ensure they support the selected topic. Although there is so much one can write on a specific topic, you must narrow it down to those points that are current and that support your topic.
- Comprehensive: Your paper also needs to be as comprehensive as possible. So, you must exhaustively identify the core points in a selected topic. It should also fit well in the current literature on the same topic, helping to advance the discipline.
- Plagiarism-Free: All universities out there have very strict rules on plagiarism. Therefore, your work must be 100% original.
- Clearly flowing points and free from errors: Finally, your paper should be arranged well to ensure that all the points flow logically from the start to the end. Again, it should be proofread to ensure it is free from errors.
Best Astronomy Essay Topics
Now that we have looked at the main characteristics of a high quality astronomy paper or essay, it is time to dig deeper into the main topics. Check out our list of the leading astronomy research topics for top grades.
Top Astronomy Research Topics
- What is the future of space exploration?
- A closer review of the big bang theory.
- Compare two theories that explain the origin of the universe.
- Stephen Hawking theories.
- Space Challenger disaster: What are the sociological impacts?
- A review of the recent space exploration breakthroughs.
- The moon landing.
- The Mars landing of space rovers.
- A deeper look at the history of astronomy.
- Reviewing the heliocentric model of the galaxy.
- Analyzing the lifecycle of a star.
- What impact does the moon have on the earth?
- Space debris and its impact on the solar system.
- What impact do humans have on the solar system?
- The rise of space tourism: What impact will it have on space exploration?
- Is space tourism a good thing?
- What could go wrong with space tourism?
- Space manufacturing: Is it a good thing?
- The mythologies associated with heavenly bodies.
- What impact do the stars have on earth?
Unique Astronomy Research Paper Topics
- A review of the Hubble telescope.
- A closer look at the Haley’s comet.
- Through the mind of early astronomers: Galileo Aristotle, and Ptolemy.
- What are the advantages of exploring space?
- The race to explore space and the cold war.
- Reviewing the first astronauts to visit the moon.
- What lessons did NASA learn from its first mission to the moon?
- Can life exist on the moon?
- What is the biggest difference between earth and moon?
- Explaining the earth’s outlook as viewed from space.
- The design of space vehicles: Are the modern models riskier compared to those used in the 20th century?
- What impact will private companies like SpaceX and Blue Origin have in astronomy?
- If we have a space station where scientists travel often, is the idea of space hotels far-fetched? A closer look at Blue Origin’s idea of a space hotel.
- Looking beyond the Milky Way.
- A review of Pluto: How does it compare to other planets?
- How does earth compare to Jupiter?
- Explain the sun’s source of heat and light for millions of years.
- Analyzing the rings of Saturn.
- A review of astronauts physical and health preparedness before setting off for space exploration.
- What effects does long stay in space have on the human body?
- What can astronauts do to reduce the danger of muscle atrophy?
- Zero gravity in space.
Awesome Astronomy Topics To Write About
- What are wormholes?
- A review of the evolution of space exploration changes in history.
- Speed of light travel: what are the implications?
- A closer look at time travel: Theory versus fiction.
- Zero gravity: What impact does it have on astronauts’ health over time?
- The interdisciplinary perspectives of space.
- Astrophysics: A review of the main controversies.
- Explore the possibility of having life on other planets.
- What implications would life on other planets have on planet earth?
- Think of yourself as an astronaut: What would be your reaction upon encounter with aliens?
- Stars and how people use them for navigation.
- Comparing different theories that explain the origin of life on planet earth.
- Space weather.
- How does space weather compare to the earth’s weather?
- Global warming: An astronaut’s view.
- The sun and its relationship with the earth.
- Comparing the sun’s relationship with Saturn and Pluto.
- Robotic space exploration: Is it a good idea?
- Constellations: A review of human interpretations.
- A review of emerging business opportunities in space.
- Space travel for non-astronauts: Is it a good idea?
- Comparing space travelling scientists to tourists: What is the difference?
Engaging Space Research Paper Topics
- What is the difference between planets and asteroids?
- How did the “northern lights” come about?
- Capture hypothesis: A review.
- What caused the Challenger to explode after take-off?
- The challenger shuttle disaster: A review of the preparations.
- What lessons did we learn from the challenger disaster?
- Was the Challenger the greatest failure in NASA’s history?
- Analyzing President Ronald Reagan’s speech after the Challenger disaster.
- Space Challenger disaster analysis: Why we are on the blink of another bigger and deadlier disaster.
- Are the current space policies ample to guide the new era of space travel?
- Dennis Tito: Looking at the experience of the first space tourists.
- Space politics: Is competition a good thing when it comes to space exploration?
- Reimagining the space: What would happen if we suddenly discovered that it was possible to inhabit the moon?
- Space will form the next generation combat zone for superpowers in competition for new resources.
- Factoring the distance and other logistics: Would mining in space be viable?
Great Space Exploration Topics
- A review of three biggest planets that orbit outside the solar system.
- Comparing the characteristics of gas planets to terrestrial planets.
- Fission Hypothesis by George Darwin.
- A review of the Giant Impact Theory.
- Exploring the theories that explain the origin of the moon.
- How long does it take for a new planet to form?
- Imagining a Marxist society living on Mars.
- Exploring the process of formation of the biggest stars in the cosmos.
- Is it possible for light to escape from the black hole?
- Determining the moon’s diameter: How accurate is the method used for calculation?
- Is the Big Bang Theory the best explanation of the origin of the universe?
- Reviewing the fate of the universe.
- Gravitational waves: Why their discovery is so important.
- Monitoring the State of the Environment using Ecologically Clean devices.
- Reviewing the doctrine of Noosphere.
- The legends of Starry Sky.
- The importance of mathematics in space explorations.
Astrophysics Research Topics For Debate
- Relativity theory and gravity.
- What is a variable star?
- Gravity and eclipse.
- Venus: Reviewing its formation.
- The mass of matter and nebulae.
- The Big Bang Theory.
- Brown Dwarf.
- Space manufacturing: What materials and products are manufactured in space?
- What happens during a solar eclipse?
- Celestial mechanics.
- Manned space shuttles.
Discussion Topics In Astronomy
- A thematic review of the heliocentric theory.
- The conflicting theories on the origin of the earth: science versus religion.
- Expecting the worst: What could go wrong with space missions?
- Is the cost and effort for space exploration worth it?
- Beyond the visible universe: What should we expect?
- How does the lunar cycle function?
- The dimensions of light in space: How does it differ after entering the earth’s atmosphere?
- What is astrophysics?
- Nonlinear, slow mode, and fast mode effects.
- Grand unification theories.
- What impact does the moon have on the oceans?
- The longitudes and latitudes of the earth.
- What are the different types of stars?
- The formation and destruction of clouds in the Galaxies.
- Meridian and transit circles: What are they?
- The galaxy cluster growth.
- A review of the molecular cloud.
Investigative Astrophysics Research Topics
- How long does it take to travel to space?
- Which is the most prominent of all planets? Is it earth?
- Survival on other planets? How to make it possible.
- Pluto should not be considered another planet: Discuss.
- Journey to Mars: Should we open it to all?
- Comparing the journeys to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon.
- Space keeps expanding: Explain.
- The best defense against killer asteroids.
- How to relate interplanetary matter with space activities.
- The 2012 transit of Venus: A detailed review.
- What do astronauts eat when travelling to space?
Controversial Astronomy Topics For Research Paper
- Militarization of space: Is it avoidable?
- Asteroid mining: Is it a good idea?
- A review of space exploration issues and connection to women.
- State exploration is very important: Approve or disapprove this statement.
- Colonizing other planets: Is it ethical?
- Terraforming on Mars.
- The security challenges of space explorations.
- Space exploration: Does it have any impacts on planet earth.
- Using VR and AR should replace humans for space explorations.
Other Cool Astronomy Topics
- The impact of the sun on water bodies.
- Interstellar extinction: What is the cause?
- What is the deep impact mission?
- Essential requirements for space travel.
- Preparing for space travel.
- Is there an earth-like planet that is habitable?
- Solar systems with two stars: How do they operate?
- Comparing the preparation for space tourists and astronauts.
- Where do asteroids come from?
- What is antimatter?
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Participant Observation Research Paper
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Participant observation has been part of the arsenal of methodological techniques employed by social scientists since around 1900, notably within the discipline of sociology. Participant observation involves the active engagement of the researcher with the members the community that he or she wishes to study, typically as an equal member of the group.
This methodology falls under the general rubric of ﬁeld research. It is important to recognize that there exist alternative styles of ‘ﬁeld research’: a range of possibilities that this chapter will not cover. However, in contrast to the manner in which observational research has traditionally been conducted in anthropology, in sociology much ethnography is based on the assumption that the researcher is at least nominally a participant in the group being studied. Yet, the line that separates participant observation and other forms of ethnographic observation is uncertain and hazy, and for some scholars the two terms have been used as synonyms.
Since the mid-1970s there has been a notable increase in the frequency and the legitimacy of the variety of ﬁeld methodologies within the social sciences. These qualitative, interpretive strategies, once considered ‘unscientiﬁc,’ have demonstrated their utility in a number of disciplines. That this occurred during a period in which social scientiﬁc funding was being decreased is surely no coincidence. Although at the beginning of the twenty-ﬁrst century qualitative ﬁeld methods do not have the same standing as quantitative methods (especially in psychology and economics), their growth is astonishing.
Several distinct advantages justify participant observation; among these are the beneﬁts of rich data, validity, Verstehen, and economy.
This methodology, in contrast to most methods that do not involve personal witnessing, provides for rich and detailed data. To investigate action, direct observation is essential. When this is coupled with the questioning of actors about their choices, tied to some measure of active involvement, the value of participant observation is evident. The form of data collection permits an intense depiction that produces a fullness of understanding.
A second beneﬁt is analytical validity. Because the observations are of behavior in situ, the researcher can rely upon the claim that the ﬁndings are close to the ‘proper’ depiction of the scene. If the conclusions drawn from participant observation research are not always reliable, in that other investigators might reach diﬀerent conclusions, they do reﬂect the belief that some aspect of the world as it ‘truly’ is, is being described.
1.3 Interpretive Understanding
Participant observation supports the demand of Max Weber to produce research that is characterized by Verstehen or a personal understanding. In this way participant observation with its emphasis on both participation and observation adds to research knowledge. By directly involving the researcher in the activity, one can understand on an immediate level the dynamics and motivations of behavior. The observer becomes other than an outsider. While research projects diﬀer signiﬁcantly on this dimension, involvement has advantages for a verstehende analysis that other approaches can not match.
Participant observation research is typically inexpensive. While this research strategy is surely laborintensive, it is not capital-intensive. In many cases the researcher is the only member of the project, and can set the terms of his or her own involvement. Increasingly, however, team-research projects exist as well, and in these cases wages and beneﬁts for hired observers may involve considerable costs. Yet, in the standard participant observation project the key resources consist of a technology for inscribing observations. Perhaps for reasons of cost, connected to the time and energy involved, participant observation has proven to be a technique most typically engaged in by scholars at the early stages of their academic careers.
Just as there are signiﬁcant advantages to this methodology, disadvantages are evident. Problems relate to proof, generalizability, bias, and time commitments.
Participant observation relies upon a single case study: the examination of one place. This raises questions about the nature of proof, or, put another way, about reliability. Will two researchers examining the same or similar social scenes reach the same conclusions? Often because of diﬀerent perspectives upon entering the ﬁeld and diﬀerent experiences within the ﬁeld, ﬁndings are sharply distinct. While the observations and interpretations of those observations may be compelling, one can reasonably wonder whether any set of conclusions is deﬁnitive.
Even if we accept the legitimacy of analyzing one scene, on what grounds can we generalize beyond that setting? How far can our conclusions be pushed? Participant observation research has a problem in this regard because of the absence of scientiﬁc control that characterizes experimental research and produces conﬁdence in the claim that important variables of social life have been adequately captured. As a result, the extent to which generalizability is legitimate is problematic in participant observation. Participant observers need to present a theoretical model that helps readers to judge the legitimacy of their broader claims in light of the audience’s own experiences.
A strength of participant observation methodology is that the researcher’s insight and perspective is taken into account, but this strength has a downside. One cannot adequately distinguish between perspective and bias. The background that the researcher brings to a scene can be distinctively diﬀerent from other researchers, and, for that matter, from the perspectives of the participants in the setting. To the extent that the researcher’s perspectives diﬀer signiﬁcantly from the perspectives of the participants—possible because of the generally progressive values and upper middle class status of academics—the understanding of a particular scene may be systematically biased.
Just as participant observation research is relatively inexpensive, it is also highly labor intensive. This form of research requires that the researcher be present in the observed social scene. One cannot simply ﬂy in and out, but must spend suﬃcient time so that the full range of activities in which participants engage are noted. Much participant observation depends upon chance—what happens to occur at the moment of observation—and, as a result, a signiﬁcant investment of time is needed. While there is no deﬁnitive rule for the proper length of time necessary for observation, most projects require months, if not years, to complete. This, coupled with a modest requirement for capital equipment support means that, as noted, this methodology is particularly appropriate for younger scholars. This reality can mean that participant observation studies often do not have the depth of theoretical understanding that more likely characterizes the work of senior scholars.
3. The Growth And Development Of Participant Observation
Although participant observation methodology has deep roots in ethnographic traditions (including in traveler’s tales and missionary tales), participant observation has its origins in the discipline of sociology at the turn of the twentieth century, particularly with scholars aﬃliated with the Department of Sociology at the University of Chicago. Notable in this early stage was the participant observation studies of Annie Marion MacLean, a student at Chicago and later professor at Adelphi University. MacLean worked and observed in department stores, sweatshops, and coalﬁelds, in order to gain an appreciation of conditions in these scenes. By the 1920s participant observation was well established in Chicago, as evidenced in studies by Frances Donovan on the lives of waitresses and Frederic Thrasher’s observations of gang life. Although members of the ‘Chicago school’ of sociology employed numerous methodological techniques, the group was probably best known for their observational research and life stories. By mid-century participant observation had expanded well beyond the bounds of Chicago. Works such as William Foote Whyte’s Street Corner Society (1943), August Hollingshead’s Elmtown’s Youth (1949), Arthur Vidich and Joseph Bensman’s Small Town in Mass Society (1958), and Herbert Gans’s The Urban Villagers (1962), collectively demonstrated that through involvement in a community, the researcher could gain a perspective that was both empirically and theoretically powerful. The fact that many of these research projects covered life in city environments led some to describe this approach as ‘urban ethnography’. Another stream of ‘participant observation’ research was grounded in the study of deviant groups and activities. Researchers in such domains have the dilemma of determining the degree to which participation should bolster their observation. Exemplifying such research are studies of the mentally ill, gang members, and drug dealers, notably the classic works by Erving Goﬀman Asylums (1961), and Elliott Liebow, Tally’s Corner (1967). These two themes —urban life and social deviance—have been integral to participant observation, and despite reduced interest in the late 1980s and early 1990s, scholars, such as Elijah Anderson, Mitchell Duneier, David Snow, and Carol Stack have returned to these themes, creating a ‘new urban ethnography’ that focuses on issues of urban poverty and racial injustice.
Not all researchers focus on ‘problem domains.’ Beginning with the inspiration of the Hawthorne studies, and later the research of Donald Roy and Melville Dalton, increasing attention has been paid to observations of work places. The participant observation of organizational life has developed rapidly, creating an active investigation of organizational domains, both in traditional social science departments and within schools of management. Factories, airlines, restaurants, and high tech engineering ﬁrms have all been the focus of research. Yet, all social worlds in which individuals with a common interest meet can be analyzed through participant observation, whether clubs, sports teams, or bars.
4. Comparison With Other Field Methods
It is easy to assert that participant observation is synonymous with qualitative research, and, in reality, the lines are blurred. However, participant observation can be contrasted with several other techniques with which it shares some commonalties. Some scholars engage in ‘ethnographic immersion.’ In such investigations, the researcher becomes a full member of the group, and, in eﬀect, studies his or her own group. This has the advantage that the researcher comes by his or her ‘member’s knowledge’ naturally, but simultaneously the immersion may diminish the ability to examine the group life from the critical perspective that being marginal sometimes brings. Most participant observation maintains a distinction between the researcher and the full member of the group studied. Typically members are told that they are being observed—an outsider, who, for purposes of the study, may participate actively in the life of the group, even though she or he is not a full member.
A second technique, related to ethnographic immersion, has been labeled ‘auto-ethnography,’ akin to the methodology of introspectionism of the early years of the twentieth century. In these studies, the researcher mines his or her life experiences, hoping to demonstrate the embodied characteristics of social forces. One such example is Carolyn Ellis’s emotional and analytical account of her own reaction to the lengthy dying of her signiﬁcant other. This writing, while occasionally powerful, insightful, and moving, can be faulted for its reliance on subjective experience. Auto-ethnography might be seen as an extreme instance of total immersion, with nothing outside the researcher’s experience; given this, such arguments become diﬃcult for others to evaluate. The author proposes a singular account of her emotions that because it is her account leaves no room for alternative interpretations.
A third, related approach is to collect data by means of in-depth interviews. Most participant observation involves questioning of informants. However, some research relies on this questioning to the exclusion of direct observation. This method has the advantage of permitting the researcher to gain multiple perspectives of the same scene and permits the investigation of domains to which it might be impossible to gain direct access. However, in-depth interviews limit the researcher to the presentations of interested parties. The rhetoric in interviews may be systematically diﬀerent from the private thoughts of the informant and may also diﬀer from their behavior. Observations provide a check on what one is told for reasons of impression management. As always, triangulation of data provides advantages, curbing the weakness of any one methodology.
Fourth, some researchers de-emphasize participation, and are, in practice, pure observers. Some observers make precise statistical measurements of public behaviors, but this approach is distinct from participant observation. More relevant are those scholars who examine public behavior, particularly behavior within cities. This distinguished tradition of scholarship includes such researchers as William H. Whyte, Erving Goﬀman, Lyn Loﬂand, and, more recently, Carol Brooks Gardner. A close reading of street activity, perhaps parallel to certain forms of animal ethology, permits the recognition of patterns of human activity.
Of course, within participant observation, researchers select various roles or strategies. The key dimension on which roles can be diﬀerentiated is the extent to which members are involved within group life. Adler and Adler (1987) divide participant observation methods according to the extent of participation: peripheral membership, active membership, and complete membership. In general, the peripheral member observes as an outsider to the group and its culture, the active member is directly engaged in the life of the group, while making it clear to the group that she or he does not fully belong and is conducting research. In the model of the Adlers, the complete observer essentially engages in ethnographic immersion, sometimes informing the group of the research goals.
5. Strategies Of Participant Observation
Unlike many techniques of quantitative research and statistical analysis, there are no ﬁrm and fast rules that determine how participant observation research should be conducted. Such a reality has proven frustrating to generations of students. Traditionally a novice learned the skills of participant observation through what amounted to an apprenticeship relation with a senior researcher. However, because of the increasing numbers of ﬁeld researchers, many social science departments, notably in sociology and anthropology, have instituted ﬁeld methods courses in which some rudimentary ‘rules’ and strategies of the method are taught.
Often the ﬁrst issue that must be confronted in a research project is the question of access. How does one convince a group that they should open their space to an outsider who may criticize the group? This is surely applicable to groups that are widely perceived as deviant (criminal gangs or politically marginal movements), but it also recognizes that any group, striving to maintain boundaries that diﬀerentiate it from others, may engage in some activities that members wish to keep hidden from outsiders and which could be viewed negatively. Participant observers must, within the limits of their ethical standards, convince the group that they can be trusted. Through this process they set ‘the rules of engagement.’ Such rules, explicit or implicit, diﬀer for each project. Further, this access involves an ongoing temporal process. One is rarely accepted all at once, but often the group maintains a cautious vigilance until they become satisﬁed that the researcher can be trusted. The participant observer must be sensitive to this personal equation.
Access is only a ﬁrst step. Once the researcher gains entrance to a setting he or she must determine what behavior means. In eﬀect, the participant observer must become socialized to the environment with its norms, cultural traditions, and jargon. The ease of this process varies as a consequence of how well acquainted the researcher is with the setting prior to the observation, but unless the researcher begins as a full member, a process of acculturation must typically be mastered. At times, the group may become frustrated by the lack of competence of the observer, but more often this process of learning is valuable in methodological terms, permitting the researcher to ask questions that would be denied to others as being too obvious.
5.3 Developing Relationships
Participant observation is a methodology that depends upon the establishment of relationships. It relies upon sociability. One essential skill is the ability to recruit informants from the ﬁeld. The most important of these are termed ‘key informants,’ such as Doc in William Foote Whyte’s (1943) classic Street Corner Society. These individuals serve both a guides for the participant observer and as a means of vouching for the researcher’s legitimacy within the setting, providing an insider’s stamp of approval. The researcher who lacks the ability to make connections will have diﬃculty collecting credible research data.
5.4 Field Notes
The researcher does not only need to observe activity, but must subsequently inscribe that material in ‘ﬁeld notes,’ documents that serve as the evidentiary basis of the published report. Considerable discussion has addressed what constitutes appropriate ﬁeld notes and how these notes should be presented (Van Maanen 1988). These notes provide the ‘facts’ that are observed, including actions, statements, and the feelings of the observer. Participant observers are enjoined to write as much of what transpires as possible, particularly in the early stages of the research, when one is determining what issues are most salient. This emphasizes that participant observation is often an inductive methodology, with the ﬁeld data revealing the important issues, rather than testing pre-established hypotheses.
5.5 Exit Strategies
Much research simply ends. Once completed, the project closes down. Exiting is not as simple in participant observation because the researcher and informants have developed social ties. Leaving the ﬁeld involves the termination of a set of powerful relationships, and sometimes produces loneliness or even betrayal. As a result, the process of disengagement often involves a longer period, and some connection with the ﬁeld setting continues. Researchers are often advised—both for practical and ethical reasons—to share material with their informants, either to gain additional feedback or to permit those informants to use the analysis for their own ends. The linkages that are established during the course of the observation can be a continuing source of strength, both for researchers and for informants.
6. Ethical Concerns
Although all forms of research involving human subjects raise ethical issues, the variety of ethical concerns in participant observation are particularly great because of the degree of interpersonal dynamics involved. Four ethical issues have been central to participant observation research: deception, informed consent, conﬁdentiality, and precision of depiction. Although these do not exhaust potential ethical topics, they raise important concerns.
Most participant observers agree that it is both pragmatically and ethically necessary to announce to one’s informants that one is conducting research. In part, this is because participant observation depends on the personal relations among individuals, who, for that period of time, are status peers. To claim to be something that one is not—to pretend to be a full member of the group—without revealing one’s purpose could undermine the entire enterprise if it becomes discovered. Lies are often diﬃcult to maintain for long periods. Further, deception suggests that one’s interests take priority over the interests of another: can we justify such trickery? While research on groups that wish to keep their activities hidden— either deviant groups or, occasionally, elite groups— encourage deceptive practices, such strategies are troublesome.
6.2 Informed Consent
Deception involves the active misleading of others, but how should we view the absence of full disclosure? Do group members have the right to know that they are being investigated? For instance, one can easily join a leisure group without announcing that one is taking notes or planning to publish. Is this proper? As noted, good reasons may exist for announcing one’s presence, permitting one’s informants to serve, in eﬀect, as research assistants. But should researchers be required to gain the ‘informed consent’ of their informants; further, how much information is necessary for informed consent, particularly in a research methodology that depends on inductive methods, in which the researcher may truly not be aware of what issues will eventually become central? One’s topics depend on what one observes. During the past quarter century, American universities have instituted ‘ethics’ committees (Human Subjects Committees or Institutional Review Boards), designed to protect the ‘rights’ of research subjects. Frequently researchers are required to gain some measure of informed consent, but how much information is required remains a matter of debate.
One element that most (although not all) researchers agree on is that informants’ names and clearly identifying information not be included in any published research report, although some who critically examine elites feel that conﬁdentiality is not essential. In general, researchers typically believe that publishing the names or identiﬁers of particular informants or settings is neither necessary nor warranted. At times this decision poses a problem in that ﬁeld notes may describe actions or statements that can be recognized, certainly by others within the scene. As a result, participant observers must choose how much information to alter to preserve conﬁdentiality, even when this shades the full ‘facts’ of the case.
6.4 Precision Of Description
Although it is clearly desirable to present data that is precisely accurate—direct quotations and exact descriptions of behavior—participant observation methodology and the limits of human ability make these values unattainable goals (Fine 1993). In part, we are imperfect in inscribing reality, but in part we may recognize that the details of human activity may actually obscure our crucial analytical points. For instance, false starts, errors, and grammatical infelicities mark the speech of informants, like the speech of researchers themselves. Further, so much behavior is happening at any given moment that the researcher can easily become overloaded with trivial observations. The ethical balance that must be struck is to do justice to the events that are transpiring, while simultaneously making the account as clear as possible to permit communication with readers.
This brief overview has examined central features of the participant observation methodology. In doing so, it de-emphasized both the strategies of analysis (the extended case study method, grounded theory) used by practitioners and the modes of presentation (realist tales, impressionist tales). No method of data collection can exist without related techniques by which data are analyzed and presented.
Throughout the twentieth century, participant observation proved to be a powerful technique through which researchers understood a diverse set of social worlds in a way that did justice to the complexity of the activities of group members and to their own perspectives and understandings. While this methodology beneﬁts by the triangulation with other styles of research to create adequate theoretical understanding, participant observation provides the basis by which researchers can understand the richness of the social settings that they—and others—inhabit.
- Adler P A, Adler P 1987 Membership Roles in Field Research. Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA
- Fine G A 1993 Ten lies of ethnography. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography 22: 267–94
- Gans H 1962 Urban Villagers. Free Press, Glencoe, IL
- Goﬀman E 1961 Asylums. Anchor, New York
- Hollingshead A 1949 Elmtown’s Youth. Wiley, New York
- Liebow E 1967 Tally’s Corner. Little Brown, Boston
- Van Maanen J 1988 Tales of the Field. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
- Vidich A, Bensman J 1958 Small Town in Mass Society. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ
- Whyte W F 1943 Street Corner Society. University of Chicago Press, Chicago
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Primary research involves collecting data about a given subject directly from the real world. This section includes information on what primary research is, how to get started, ethics involved with primary research and different types of research you can do. It includes details about interviews, surveys, observations, and analyses.
Observations are a type of primary research that involves spending time watching people or other creatures interact with each other and the world around them. Observations are used in nearly every scientific field and can be incredibly useful in gathering information.
Types of Participation
Before observing, consider how you as an observer may alter the event being observed.
- How fully will you participate in the event?
- Will you simply sit, watch, and take notes with no interaction?
- Will you interact with the participants?
- Will you become a participant yourself?
These different choices can radically change what you end up observing. The mere presence of an observer may alter the events--and if you interact with participants, you further risk changing what takes place. The other side to this is that by not participating in an event, you may not gain a complete understanding of that event.
How to Observe
When observing, it is especially important to separate observations from your feelings or reactions to observations. A good way to do this is to take your observations in a double-entry notebook. A double-entry notebook has two columns, one for what is directly observed and one is for what the observer interprets from the events. Here is an example:
Observation: The teacher walks around the circle and speaks to each student individually.
Interpretation: The teacher seems to want to make sure that each student understands the assignment.
If you are observing a group that is not found in public (such as a group of card players, a sports team, or a special-interest group), it may be wise to plan to spend multiple sittings with the group. This will allow the group some time to adjust to your presence (and hence, for you to get more accurate observations).
Recordings vs. Note-taking
How will you be observing? Will you be taking notes in a notebook? With a laptop? Will you be recording your observations in some way (with a cell phone, digital camera, video camera, digital recorder, etc.?)
How you choose to observe is another important consideration that can affect the quality and results of your observations. Remember that you cannot capture everything that takes place with a recording or even by taking detailed notes.
What to Observe
Observational skills require some practice! The key to being a good observer is to pay attention to the details of a situation, write as much as you can, and write it as detailed as possible.
Before you observe, you should consider how you will focus your observations--because you can't focus on everything!
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- Descriptive Study
- Explanatory Variable
- Exploratory Study
- Research Worker
- Theoretical Research
Field Observational Research in Anthropology and Sociology
R. Sanjek , in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences , 2001
7 Canons of Validity
Field observational research aims to maximize validity—‘the degree to which scientific observations actually measure or record what they purport to measure’—rather than reliability—‘the repeatability, including interpersonal replicability, of scientific observations’ (Pelto and Pelto 1978 , p. 33). Reliability is valued in survey, medical, and product safety research. In ethnography, restudies to assess change may be conducted, but independent investigation of the same locale or population is unlikely or impossible.
Validity depends on the intensity and depth of field observational research, but it always remains a goal rather than a property that can be independently measured (Wolcott 1995 , pp. 167–70). A quantitative, and highly reliable, randomized sample study that investigates the gender, ethnicity, class, and other characteristics of the five best friends of members of a given population would be less valid than one in which cultural meanings and categories of friendship were first discovered through listening to natural conversations or eliciting such information in interviews. In the case of Indian immigrants in New York City, for example, the ‘five best friends’ study might miss entirely the category of rakhi ritual friendships between adult males and females which are affirmed in an annual festival where the man ties a flower bracelet on the woman's wrist.
If validity remains important, but elusive, how can it be assessed in field observational research results? Sanjek ( 1990 , pp. 393–404) proposed three canons of validity by which ethnographic writing may be evaluated. The first is theoretical candor, the openness with which the ethnographer addresses the significant theories, and even more, the local theories of significance that structured the fieldwork process. A second canon calls for explicit depiction of the ethnographer's fieldwork path—the number of informants from whom information was obtained, in what ways, and their relationship both to the wider population the field observational study concerns and to each other. A third canon concerns information about the fieldnote evidence itself: not simply ‘how much’ and its basis in listening, observing, or interviewing, but more significantly the precise relationship of notes and records to the written ethnography. Some ethnographies utilize fieldnotes directly, even masses of them; others, for rhetorical or narrative purposes, do not, and need not. What matters in the end is that readers of field observational research have a clear picture of what the ethnographer did and why, who they talked to and learned from, and what they brought back to document it.
Field observational research produces results that can be obtained in no other way. This ethnographic tradition entails that ‘the description of people's activities, their interactions with each other, [and] their verbal behavior’ be ‘copious and detailed’; ‘cumulative development … consists above all in the fact that such data, provided they are adequate, never become obsolete and can be used by analysts … in researching questions not visualized by the researchers who collected them’ (Anglin 1979 , p. 49).
Useful observational research
Brian Wansink , in Context , 2019
5.3.3 Observing and coding consumers
Pure observational research does not involve interacting with the people who are being observed, so it is exempt from Institutional Review Approval at most institutions. But being an invisible, or at least unobtrusive, observer is not easy. One way to do this is to use the “Mystery Shopper approach” and play the role of a customer or patron as you are doing the observations. In grocery stores, you can have a full cart of groceries with a coding sheet that is shaped to look like a shopping list. At an amusement park, your coding sheet can be designed to fit into a program or amusement park map; at a restaurant, your coding sheet can be designed to look like the other papers you have sitting next to you on the table ( Doering & Wansink, 2017 ). With smart phones and an online coding sheet, this can sometimes be even easier and less conspicuous.
The number of consumers that a person observes and codes depends on how long they are observed, how much they move, and on many actions they take ( Te et al., 2017 ). When using paper coding sheets, you can often track up to three people at one time. With electronic coding, accurately observing more than one person at a time can involve switching between screens, which can lead to miscoding mistakes, record write-overs, and lost files.
If people are being observed during slow periods of the day, a researcher may be able to code every consumer they see. During busy times, however, it will only be possible to code every nth person. In grocery stores at 5:00 or on weekends, only every 5th person might be tracked; whereas every 2nd one can be tracked on a Monday morning in a small store. One key is to choose the locations and types of locations that will be most relevant for your questions.
Packaging in context
Lawrence L. Garber Jr. , ... Ünal Ö. Boya , in Context , 2019
27.8 Asking questions
A drawback of observational research is that, unless it is accompanied by some sort of exit interview, it only reveals behaviors—the actions that consumers take—from which researchers can only infer the thoughts and emotions that have led to them. A serious limitation to this type of research is that visuals are treated atheoretically, as purely sensory phenomena, and the emotional and cognitive processing of visual stimuli is largely overlooked or ignored. The latter are important because effective strategy must be informed by the reasons why consumer do what they do.
To know the why of what consumers do, we can attach exit surveys to observational tools—asking questions of consumers once they have been observed. These may take traditional forms for positioning studies—asking consumers to rate a set of brands on a set of needs/benefit attributes, to rate liking and purchase intentions and so on. The purpose here would not be for brand positioning purposes, but rather to test whether exposure to certain package visuals in certain contexts affects identifiability, brand perceptions, preference, or likelihood of choice, relative to some other package visuals or in some other contexts. Interpretable results may be obtained by any number of multivariate analyses, including perceptual maps or regression analysis.
Perceptual Maps . Maps are a means of graphically displaying statistical information. They are commonly used in marketing for positioning studies, typically showing brands and attributes together as points in a joint space. The overlay of these two-point sets permits interpretation of the brands according to their relative positions, as interpreted by the attributes to which they are proximate or distant according to consumer perceptions.
A variation on such maps is shown in Fig. 27.11 , taken from Garber et al. (2000) . In this case, a set of Gold Medal flour packages whose background colors have been manipulated substitutes for a set of competitor brands. The objective here is to see if and how a change to package color affects consumers’ perceptions of the product that the package represents. The separation of the variously colored packages indicates that it does.
This kind of study can be adjusted to take into account package context by manipulating context rather than the package itself. A set of competitor brands to the target brands, which would be the marketer's own brand, could be represented in various settings. In a between-subjects design, each respondent would be exposed to the entire brand set but only to one setting. A map would be generated for each setting. Differences in brand position across maps would indicate the differential perceptual effect of viewing a package in each setting. That effect could be determined by interpreting the position of each brand in its attribute space, given its setting.
Regression Analysis . Considering the latter, to incorporate context, model specifications may be of the general form:
Y o ≡ set of outcomes variables measuring any of perception, preference choice, etc. For example, perception may be represented by the rating of each of a bundle of needs/benefit attributes that fully define products in this category; choice may be represented by liking ratings; and choice may be represented by various statements declaring purchase intention.
X i ≡ set of categorical variables representing each package's visual attributes, including color, size, shape, etc., or their combination.
X j ≡ set of categorical variables representing the context in which a package is presented, such as shelf position, # of facings, facings shape, competitor facings, lighting, etc., or their combination.
mHealth for research
Ipek Ensari PhD , Noémie Elhadad PhD , in Digital Health , 2021
2 User engagement and participatory design in mHealth research
Well-designed mHealth apps have the potential to engage patients as advocates in their personalized care, offer healthcare providers real-world assessments of their patients’ disease patterns, and better understand and gain insights into understudied diseases about which researchers and clinicians know little about. This potential can be realized if input from the chronic disease patients is collected during the design of the mHealth tool [ 29 , 30 ], specifically to assess what factors can increase the personal relevance of such a tool and how to ensure adequate usability and acceptability. This can contribute substantively to sustained user retention and engagement, which in turn enables accumulation of the necessary data to gain meaningful disease insights. As such, consideration of user engagement should start at the design stage and continue through deployment (i.e., active usage and data collection).
Defining Engagement . Although various definitions of engagement exist in the literature [ 21 ], for the purposes of this chapter, it can be conceptualized as usage of mHealth technologies in terms of temporal patterns (e.g., frequency, duration) and depth (e.g., use of specific intervention content) [ 21 ]. In other words, it is the degree of interaction a user has with the technology within a given time span or the overall length of time from the onset use of a technology to when the user totally lost interest in the usage [ 20 ]. It is a dynamic process that varies both within and across individuals; users can engage, disengage, and reengage with the mHealth technology over time [ 4 , 15 ].
Factors reported to influence engagement include those at the population level user-specific characteristics (i.e., physical, psychological, cognitive, demographic, mental health), at the user level (user expectations and personal relevance of the mHealth technology), and at the mHealth app level (e.g., app content such as its features with social support and reminders, app’s delivery mode) [ 6 , 31 ]. Given the reported low retention of usership and short-lasting engagement with mHealth technologies [ 4 , 32 ], leveraging what is known about these factors and when to use them can help target the right ones during the design stage, therefore increasing likelihood of sustained engagement.
One limitation in the existing literature investigating the link between engagement and mHealth app design, however, is its reliance on interventions (e.g., behavioral change interventions) (e.g. Refs. [ 2 , 13–15 ]). There are no guidelines on design of mHealth apps where the goal is to gain insights about the disease population , instead of “intervene” on an individual’s behavior. Particularly for conditions that are not well understood, a critical question is how to design such tools when it is unclear which data types are relevant to the disease. Because the successful use of an mHealth app requires an ability to understand and utilize personal health data, user experience should account for individual differences in numeracy skills and apply evidence-based behavioral science principles to promote continued engagement [ 33 ]. These collectively underscore the value of a patient-centered, participatory design approach in the context of observational research mHealth apps.
Stages of Participatory Design . Participatory design is a multistage, multimethod process [ 23 , 30 , 34 ], ideally guided through questions that the research team has set prior to beginning their research process (see Table 5.1 ). Typically, as a first step, individual interviews and/or focus groups are conducted to gain an understanding of the needs, goals, and preferences of the target demographic. This qualitative phase can be supplemented with quantitative data collection approaches (e.g., surveys and questionnaires) to gain a comprehensive profile of the target user group. The design and the content of the mHealth tool are informed by the triangulation of data collected through these stages and in an iterative manner tested with groups of participants. This iteration phase includes usability, acceptability, and learnability assessments, conducted at multiple stages as needed during the design process. Importance of this iterative stage is underscored by the significant association of these three factors to research mHealth tool user retention and engagement [ 30 , 32 ].
Table 5.1 . Guiding questions for conducting research to develop observational research app.
From a quantitative approach, there is a variety of models and validated questionnaires for assessing these components, including the Health IT Usability Evaluation Model (Health-ITUEM) [ 35 ], Technology Acceptance Model (TAM), the customizable Health IT Usability Scale (Health-ITUES) [ 36 ] that was developed based on the framework, IBM Computer System Usability Questionnaire [ 37 ], System Usability Scale [ 38 ], End-User Computing Satisfaction [ 39 ], and Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology (UTAUT) [ 40 ]. Information gained through the structured questionnaires can further be supplemented with qualitative assessment of user perceptions of the design through focus groups and individual interviews.
In sum, this multistage data triangulation process helps circumvent limitations of digitization of chronic diseases identified in the literature, including lack of consumer appeal or clinical relevance, low added value, missing services for comorbidities, and demographic and behavioral characteristics of patient populations [ 2 ]. As such, it is recommended that these potential issues are considered as early as possible in the app design process.
2.1 Case study: participatory design of Phendo
Phendo is an observational research smartphone app available for iOS and Android, and was developed for people with endometriosis to self-track symptoms, treatments, and self-management strategies associated with their disease [ 11 , 23 ]. The app enables participants to review and sign an electronic consent to participate to the Citizen Endo research. In terms of self-tracking features within Phendo, participants can track the location, intensity, and type of their endometriosis pain across 39 specific body locations, gastrointestinal and genitourinary issues, other symptoms (e.g., “blurry vision” “hot flashes” “fatigue”), and their severity, mood, bleeding, and medication intake. Users can track a functional assessment of their day (“How was your day?”), menstruation patterns, and a daily journal. All aspects of Phendo were designed based on a series of quantitative and qualitative exploratory research conducted with women living with endometriosis [ 11 ], using a multistep data triangulation process described above. The goal of the research team was to create a patient-centered tool that engages the user as an active participant in the research on better understanding endometriosis . Further details of each of these steps are provided in Ref. [ 23 ] and we summarize the guiding questions that informed each step as a guiding checklist for the reader (see Table 5.1 ). Below, we describe some of the key learnings gained at each step.
Initially, the research team conducted a round of individual interviews with three women with endometriosis to collect information on personal history of the disease for each woman, their symptoms, and the burden of disease on their everyday lives. This was followed by a series of five focus groups held with women (N = 27, age ranging between 27 and 60 years) with endometriosis to (1) explore their attitudes and motivations about self-tracking their experience of the disease and (2) determine the feasibility of self-tracking endometriosis. The results from these focus groups revealed several important points, which informed the subsequent stages of the Phendo project. First, we discovered that women living with endometriosis were eager to self-track as a form of participatory research activity and that they believed their input could help clinicians and researchers better understand this disease [ 11 ]. Next, these interviews and focus groups identified aspects of the disease they were willing and thought of as important to track (i.e., prioritized disease aspects) [ 23 ].
Based on the findings from the focus groups, the research team developed questionnaires focusing on disease variables discussed during these sessions , including emotions, moods, and affects; pain locations and descriptions; medication use; and self-management, strategies, comorbidities, dietary, and exercise habits. Importantly, participants were informed of the explicit goal of designing a self-tracking tool (i.e., participatory design). Finally, to further explore the dimensions identified during the prior stages without interference from the potential biases of the researchers, a content analysis of an online health community (i.e., the endometriosis board, “r/endo,” of the social platform Reddit) was conducted. This content analysis provided confirmation of the disease aspects identified in the focus groups and online surveys [ 23 ]. This approach further enables capturing of shared, real-life experiences of individuals with the disease and can be helpful in instances where not much is known about the disease.
Included within the Phendo app user tab, in addition to researcher-derived items, Phendo participants can take a standardized questionnaire designed by the World Endometriosis Research Foundation [ 26 ] Endometriosis Phenome and Biobanking Harmonisation Project (WERF-EPHect) [ 41 ]. The questionnaire represents the gold standard for clinical characterization of endometriosis. It contains information about medical and surgical history, as well as quality of life-related questions. Outside of endometriosis, other examples of standardized, validated measures that can be used across a multitude of conditions are the patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) and the patient-reported experience measures (PREMs). A PRO is directly reported by the patient without interpretation of the patient’s response by a clinician or anyone else, and pertains to the patient’s health, quality of life, or functional status associated with healthcare or treatment [ 42 ]. Similarly, PREM is defined as a measure of a patient’s perception of their personal experience of the healthcare they have received [ 43 ]. In the context of observational mHealth research, inclusion of standardized measures allows for combining self-tracked mobile data with those from gold standard measures for comprehensive profiling of the disease, and gain further understanding of lesser-known disease aspects (see below in Section 5 ).
Elizabeth H. Zandstra , René Lion , in Context , 2019
18.104.22.168 Groundwork for quantitative studies
Two other reasons for conducting qualitative observational research is to (1) gain technical data to set up relevant (laboratory) evaluation measurement techniques, and (2) to obtain information on how a new product might be used at home in real life, including both positive and negative aspects, so that a quantitative assessment measures the appropriate steps, actions, benefits and so forth. Thus, exploratory qualitative observational consumer research helps identify which questions to ask and which steps to measure. Without a good insight into these behaviors, a quantitative study runs the risk of asking irrelevant or incomprehensible questions. The results of qualitative research are potential drivers of brand choice and product performance (both observed and consumer perceived), consumer language describing the sensory experience of a product used at home, consumer-stated motivations for choice of food products or brands, and consumers’ perceptions of constraints, problems, needs, likes, and dislikes.
Elizabeth Goodman , ... Andrea Moed , in Observing the User Experience (Second Edition) , 2012
“You Can’t Generalize from This!”
It’s also true that time and budget constraints will mean that observational research will only include a limited sample. Typically, field visits include multiple sites to look for shared patterns, and researchers ask about typical and atypical events in order to check that what they are seeing is typical. But the real question is, how far does the research need to generalize? Often, Jordan and Dalal point out, the research doesn’t need to generalize very far. For example, does this work need to apply to all call centers? Or just call centers for this one industry? Or just for this one company?
Starting Your Research
Thomas W. Edgar , David O. Manz , in Research Methods for Cyber Security , 2017
Observation Method Selection
As we discussed before, there are a few different research methods to perform observational research . Traditional exploratory observational studies leverage statistical methods to help collect data and to analyze the data to infer causal relationships between variables. Descriptive studies are good for studying specific instances of a system in operation. Finally, machine learning is useful when you have access to a lot of data and want to automate a model for prediction or hypothesis generation without fully understanding the causal inferences. Let us discuss some general issues that will help you in deciding the appropriate method.
If you already have a dataset, do you want to create a model to generate predictions or do you want to try to discover and understand causalities? Machine learning techniques are generally better at taking data and automatically or semiautomatically generating a model that can then provide predictions about future behavior. However, it is not always clear which salient data features caused the model to generate certain predictions. Traditional observational studies, on the other hand, use statistical methods to try to discover relationships between variables and infer causalities. With observational studies you might get strong beliefs about some variables, but not have a complete system model of behavior.
If you do not have data, then you need to evaluate your research from the scale of the system and the amount of resources you have available to collect a dataset. The major difference from observational studies and descriptive studies is that an observational study attempts to observe a full system, or many instances of a system, and descriptive studies examine in depth a specific case of a system or a subset of a system. If you have the capability to collect data from the complete system, or from all classes of that system, then performing an observational study will be the best approach. If the system you want to study is large, you do not have the capability and/or resources to collect data, maybe finding a subset of that system and doing a descriptive study would be a better fit ( Fig. 3.4 ).
Figure 3.4 . Cyber Security Theoretical Research Method Decision Tree.
The Logic and Philosophy of Causal Inference
Sander Greenland , in Philosophy of Statistics , 2011
The above models can be extended to deal with another major source of bias in observational research , measurement error. Because the topic is quite involved and brings in many elements not related to causality, it has not been included here. Notably however, measurement error expands the nonidentification problem to noncausal associations, thus further weakening identification of causal effects from observed associations; see [ Greenland, 2005a; 2009; 2010 ] for examples and discussion.
The above models also extend to consideration of longitudinal (time-varying) treatments such as medical regimens, but again many technical elements arise in applications [ Robins, 1999ab ]. For a discussion of relations of the models to the sufficient-component cause model common in epidemiology (which is equivalent to the INUS model of [ Mackie, 1965 ]) see [ Greenland and Brumback, 2002; VanderWeele and Robins, 2008 ].
As may be apparent from the above presentation, statistical and structural representations of causation bypass most of the philosophic subtleties associated with the complex topic of cause and effect. This bypass has facilitated applications and may reflect the task-oriented attitude of most scientists. Nonetheless, it should not lead one to overlook some serious practical problems that are usually ignored.
Perhaps the largest problem is the possible ambiguity in what it means to intervene on a variable or to “change” its level. This ambiguity can render ambiguous the concept of a potential-outcome vector Y for X . After all, if Y x is a counterfactual component of Y (as all but one component must be), its value may depend in a dramatic fashion on exactly how X would come to be x if x is counterfactual [ Greenland, 2005b; Hernán, 2005 ]. In causal diagrams the same problem is utterly invisible. These are not fatal objections to the models, for the models have proven useful whenever the meaning of interventions and outcomes is unambiguous (for example when X is measles vaccination and Y is the subsequent occurrence of measles). But they are quite disconcerting when the models are used to make claims about the impact of (for example) “eradication of childhood disease”: The effect of such an ambiguous action depends dramatically on exactly how it is carried out (e.g., by vaccinating, by curing, or by killing children).
A related problem of less practical concern, but nonetheless discomforting, is that potential-outcome models and their structural-equation generalizations seem to use an informal notion of causation to define actual effects. In particular, “setting” or forcing a treatment variable X to a particular level x (whether that is done in response to a random-number generator or in response to extraneous factors) is a causal command left undefined in the account. Here again the accompanying causal-diagram theory is silent, taking the causal interpretation of its arrows as a primitive.
Regardless of any objections and problems, the statistics and observational science literature employing potential-outcome models has exploded over the past few decades, while causal diagrams have spread rapidly in the wake. It thus seems important that those interested in issues of causality become familiar with these formal yet practical tools for causal inference.
Applied Observational Study
Reporting your results.
The final important step of an applied observational study is reporting your results. This is, however, another area where the process for applied observational research might differ from foundational observational research. Specifically, contract research is conducted on the behest of the sponsor organization, unlike grant-funded research, which is conducted in the public interest. Not to complicate things, any government might use a contract to fund research in the public interest, but it is important to realize the distinction. Any research should have a broad understanding of how their research is being paid for and what expectations are placed upon the researchers.
Dig Deeper: Researcher Expectations
Legally the responsibility and expectations on the researcher can vary substantially depending on the funding contract. A classic example of this is a government grant versus a government contract agreement. A contract is legally binding agreement to fund a list of promises. A grant is a federal vehicle to create or transfer a thing of value to the public good. http://science.energy.gov/grants/about/grants-contracts-differences/
For example, a commercial grant might specifically exclude publication, or publications or certain types of content. Typically, limitations on research dissemination can become quite contentious in academic or other research institutions. Contracts, can and will, be enforced by law. However, regardless of peer review publication or not, everyone will expect a researcher to document their results thoroughly. It is possible to publish a stress test, applied case report, or study in a conference, or perhaps a journal, but alternatives include: letters, technical reports, public announcements, or other alternatives that can be used to disseminate the information. These methods, while often not be peer-reviewed, are often appropriate for the subject matter and ensure that the community gains access to the material. Technical reports, especially are often used by commercial or nonprofit research institutions that does not have as much of an emphasis on peer-reviewed publications like academia does. It bears repeating that, peer review does provide a validation check against the topic of research, methods of research, and the quality of reporting the research to ensure that a certain level of quality is maintained. In this section, we provide a general template for reporting applied observational studies, and point out where changes might need to be made.
In the following, we will provide you with a general outline for publishing your results. Every publication will provide their own formatting guidelines. Be sure to check your selected venue’s submission requirements to make sure you follow any outline and formatting specifications. The outline provided here follows a common flow of information found in published papers and should meet the requirements of a larger number of publisher specifications.
Every paper is unique and requires some different ways of presentation; however, the provided sample flow includes all of the general information that is important to cover in a paper and is a general starting format we take when starting to write a paper and then modify it to support the topic and venue. We understand that every researcher has their own style of presentation, so feel free to use this as a jumping-off point. The discussions of each section are provided to explain what is important to include and why, so you can present the important information in whatever way best suits your style.
This title section should be self-explanatory. Provide sufficient information to help audience determine if they should read more. Some authors enjoy clever or amusing titles, your mileage may vary. You should indicate what type of study you conducted and note that it is applied research. See the examples of, “Stress test the power consumption impact of a new secure ad-hoc communications protocol for first responders,” and “An applied study on the effectiveness of a new secure ad-hoc communications protocol for first responders” for unexciting samples. But, note the tile covers the type of research, the purpose, and the subject, briefly.
The abstract is a concise and clear summary of the paper. The goal of an abstract is to provide readers with a quick description of what the paper discusses. You should only talk about what is stated in the rest of the paper and nothing additional. Each submission venue will provide guidelines on how to provide an abstract. Generally, this includes the maximum length of the abstract and formatting instructions, but sometimes this will include information on the type and layout of the content to provide.
The first section of a paper should always be an introduction for the reader into the rest of the paper. The introduction section provides the motivation and reasoning behind why the research was performed. This should include a statement of the research question and any motivating questions that were used for the research. If any background information is required, such as explaining the domain, environment, or context of the research, you would discuss it here. If the audience is significantly removed from some aspect of this topic, it may be worth it to create an independent background section.
The related works section should include a quick summarization of the field’s knowledge about this research topic. Are there competing theories? Have other experiments, studies, or theoretical studies been done? If there are a lot of works in this field, cover the most impactful or influential work for you. For applied research, this can be the area where you introduce the system or process under development. This can also fit under previous work, if you have that section. But either way, do not skip covering other similar examples of research.
The study methodology section of your paper should clearly define the process you took to conduct your study. It is crucial that this section is clear and complete, such that a reader would be able to replicate it. In this section, you should detail the specific observational methods (exploratory or descriptive), the setting/environment, and the size of the study. Additionally, the participants/subjects should be detailed. The variables under observation should be described including outcomes, quantitative values, and any confounding factors. Next, the biases should be acknowledged and also address how they were controlled and mitigated. Finally, you should define the statistics you used and the motivation for using them; you can also address if you have any missing data and how you dealt with that. If you conduct an interview, or survey, the means of developing the questions, and sample questions can be included here as well.
In the stress test example, this methods section would include the system description, the behavior being observed, and the testing methodology . And in the applied study example, this methods section would include information about the purpose , the subject , the means of intervention , and the process (unless the subject was covered in the related works section).
In the results section of your paper, explain what you found after you performed your analysis. Lay out the significance, confidence intervals, and effect sizes for all of the study. Creating tables to show results is usually an efficient and effective method. You should address the participants in the study. Also, you could show pictures of interesting results; that is, if a data anomaly occurred, or to display the distributions of the data samples. This should include descriptive data (the inputs) and outcome data (the outputs), and the analysis. If anything unexpected occurred, and shows up in the data, explain it in this section.
The discussion/future work section is for highlighting key results and results you found interesting or noteworthy. You should mention any limitations about which the reader should know. You can interpret and discuss any important correlations and discuss generalizability and causal relationships as relevant. Discuss where you think this work should lead next.
In the final section of the paper, summarize the results and conclusions of the paper. The conclusion section is often a place readers jump to quickly after reading the abstract. Make a clear and concise statement about what the ultimate results of the study were and what you learned from them. Be frank about the success and failures.
The acknowledgments section is a place for you to acknowledge anyone who helped you with parts of the research. This is also a good place to acknowledge funding sources that supported your research. As this is applied research, you might have requirements for acknowledgments. Be sure to include those as well.
Each publication will provide some guidelines on how to format references. Follow their guidelines and list all your references at the end of your paper. Depending on the length of the paper, you will want to adjust the number of references. Usually, the longer the paper, the more references. A good rule of thumb is 15–20 references for a 6-page paper. Applied research might have less than this, technical reports somes do. However, completeness and thoroughness are always something to strive for, and peer-review quality is fine, even if the document will never be publically released. For peer-reviewed publications, the majority of your references should be other peer-reviewed works. Referencing web pages and Wikipedia doesn’t generate confidence in reviewers. Also, make sure you only list references that are relevant to your paper, that is don’t inflate your reference count. Good reviewers will check references and this will likely reflect poorly on you and disqualify you.
Grounded Theory: Methodology and Theory Construction
K. Charmaz , in International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences , 2001
1 The Intellectual Heritage of Grounded Theory
Grounded theory derives from the intellectual traditions of each of its founders. Strauss brought Chicago School pragmatism, symbolic interactionism, and field research to grounded theory (see also Symbolic Interaction: Methodology ; Field Observational Research in Anthropology and Sociology ). Hence, grounded theorists study processes in natural settings and invoke pragmatic criteria of usefulness to evaluate the completed study. Grounded theory methods themselves echo pragmatist and symbolic interactionist assumptions of social life as emergent and open-ended, and answer Herbert Blumer's ( 1969 ) call to study social action in natural settings. Glaser's training in survey research at Columbia University lent grounded theory its systematic approach, positivist proclivities, and procedural language. Glaser codified steps of analysis of qualitative data in an analogous way as quantitative research had been codified. His efforts culminated in an explicit statement of how to handle data analysis (Glaser 1978 , Glaser and Strauss 1967 ). Glaser's approach assumed a knowable world waiting to be discovered, unbiased observers who are uninfluenced by preconceived logico-deductive theories of this world or by prior research about it, and a view of grounded theory categories as arising from the data. As a result of its divergent origins, grounded theory contains elements of both positivism and constructivism.
Glaser and Strauss developed grounded theory methods at a time when quantification had gained hegemony throughout the social sciences. Theory and research had become separate pursuits. The quest for quantified research findings resulted in the waning of qualitative studies. Except for an occasional classic study, most quantitative methodologists ignored qualitative research and relegated it to disciplinary sidelines, or treated it only as a precursor to rigorous quantitative research. Qualitative research was deemed impressionistic and anecdotal, unfitting the scientific quest for quantified facts. In contrast, Glaser and Strauss ( 1967 ) argued that qualitative research could stand as science in its own right, demonstrate rigor, and generate theory.
Glaser and Strauss's arguments found receptive audiences. Their methods appealed to social scientists who wished to conduct qualitative research but lacked tools for doing it. In the late 1960s and throughout the 1970s, grounded theory methodological rationales contributed significantly to re-establishing the legitimacy of qualitative research. This method provided researchers with ready justifications for conducting qualitative studies and strong rationales that their research inquiry was systematic. Not surprisingly, diverse qualitative researchers still claim to use grounded theory to establish their credibility and the legitimacy of their research enterprise. However, their claims of using grounded theory may rest on having conducted some form of qualitative research or on only following the initial steps of the grounded theory method.
Follow these three tips to turn good research paper topics into great papers. #1: Figure Out Your Thesis Early Before you start writing a single word of your paper, you first need to know what your thesis will be. Your thesis is a statement that explains what you intend to prove/show in your paper.
Step 1: Identify your research topic and objectives The first step is to determine what you're interested in observing and why. Observational studies are a great fit if you are unable to do an experiment for practical or ethical reasons, or if your research topic hinges on natural behaviors. Example: Observational study topic
115 Observation Essay Topics: Ideas To Get You Started 0 Assignments on observation essays look cheap on the surface, but tough tendons and hard bones to crack always lie beneath. Most students will therefore write such papers and score low grades easily.
To make your task easier, our experts have compiled a list of observation essay topics. Here are examples of interesting topics that you can use for your observation: How does caffeine affect your reaction? How does religion help to deal with problems? What are the "cures" for stress? Why are sweets bad for children's behavior?
Here is the list of observation essay topics to choose from: Thoughts on body piercing and tattoo Is tolerance important? Which video game may result in death? Significance of freedom and independence (Look at American Dream essay .) Meaning of money in modern world Sports develop leadership How I met my favorite movie star
List of Topic Examples for an Observation Essay To show the ability to be observant, the student needs to pick a good topic. You are supposed to have a point of view relevant to the subject you have selected, be it scenarios, pets, places, or trips. However, below are some examples of observation topics you may find helpful:
Research Paper Observation Research Papers Samples That Help You Write Better, Faster & with Gusto When you need a light push to craft a first-rate Observation Research Paper, nothing does the job more effectively than a top-notch example you can use for inspiration or as a template to follow.
Field Observation. Words: 641. Length: 2 Pages. Document Type: Research Paper. Paper #: 5454824. Read Full Paper . Skateboard park, urban center. Date and time of your observations: Saturday, 4PM. Why you chose the setting: The setting is close by, but it still offers insight into a subset of youth culture in the city.
Top observation essay topics As we promised you at the very beginning of this paper, we propose you our variants of 15 observation essay topics to choose from: Thoughts about tattoo and body piercing. Is it important to be tolerant? Difference between independence and freedom. What does money mean in the modern society?
Observation of a Nine-Month Old Infant, Susie Stranger anxiety is a common expression of fear to unfamiliar adults in infants six months to two years old (Berk, 2013). In this paper, I will discuss my experience in holding and observing an infant who is unfamiliar with strangers along with my expectations and assumptions of my experience with ...
The following sample essay on Classroom Observation Essay discusses it in detail, offering basic facts and pros and cons associated with it. To read the essay's introduction, body and conclusion, scroll down.6th of December 2010 - in the recent classroom observation on the ZC11, a block section for first year Information Technology students taking up Study and Thinking Skills class of Dr ...
Argumentative Research Paper Topics. In argumentative writing, a writer should take a particular position. Choose a debate and think which side you support. Unborn victims of violence. Scientific evidence VS definition of viability. Reasons to support euthanasia in medical practice.
Courtroom Observation Essay: a Civil Case. 1352 words | 3 Pages. In February, specifically on the 14th of February, I had the opportunity and privilege to observe a civil case. This case took place in Newark, NJ, at the Superior Court. The judge presiding over this case was Judge Jose L. Linares.
Naturalistic Observation | Definition, Guide, & Examples. Published on February 10, 2022 by Pritha Bhandari.Revised on December 2, 2022. Naturalistic observation is a qualitative research method where you record the behaviors of your research subjects in real world settings. You avoid interfering with or influencing any variables in a naturalistic observation.
Observational studies can be used to study a variety of topics, including health, social behavior, and environmental issues. Observation What is Observational? Observation is the act of looking at and analyzing the world around you. It can be done through either your eyes or your mind.
Recording of the field operations is a critical step when using field observation as a method of collecting data. A proper record of the observed traits would help eliminate instances of the researcher forgetting the actions in precision. The most significant risk, in this case, is bias and credibility issues.
Question: What do you think of the following current events research paper topic question: "Is the International Space Station a good way to bridge differences between nations, or is it vulnerable to become a political tool"? Answer: That is a good topic question. Here are a couple of others: 1.
Sociology Research Paper Topics for College Students. Sociology Research Topics on Family. Sociology of Nationality and Race. Sociology Research Topics on Human Rights. Sociology of Social Media. Sociology Research Topics Interpersonal Communication. Sociology Research Topics on Stereotypes. Sociology of Gender. Sociology of Youth Culture.
Case study observational research offers a promising approach for researchers in a wide range of health care settings seeking more complete understandings of complex topics, where contextual influences are of primary concern. Future research is needed to refine and evaluate the approach.
It also outlines the main characteristics of a great research paper. Sign in. Toll Free: +1 (888) 354-4744. Custom Essay, Term Paper & Research paper writing services. Toll Free: +1 (888) 354-4744. about; ... Unique Astronomy Research Paper Topics. A review of the Hubble telescope. A closer look at the Haley's comet. Through the mind of early ...
Sample Participant Observation Research Paper. Browse other research paper examples and check the list of research paper topics for more inspiration. If you need a religion research paper written according to all the academic standards, you can always turn to our experienced writers for help. This is how your paper can get an A!
A double-entry notebook has two columns, one for what is directly observed and one is for what the observer interprets from the events. Here is an example: Observation: The teacher walks around the circle and speaks to each student individually. Interpretation: The teacher seems to want to make sure that each student understands the assignment.
7 Canons of Validity. Field observational research aims to maximize validity—'the degree to which scientific observations actually measure or record what they purport to measure'—rather than reliability—'the repeatability, including interpersonal replicability, of scientific observations' (Pelto and Pelto 1978, p. 33).