IPv4 Census Map

Mapping the Used IPv4 Address Space

IPv4 Census Map

"Lost in Space" Census 2013

This image shows the results of an IPv4 census taken by the ETH Zurich , TU Berlin , Politecnico di Torino , and CAIDA over a three months in 2013. They combined the results they obtained through passive measurements together with data from active measurement studies, as well as measurements from BGP, and additional datasets available to researchers. From this analysis the address was divided into routed used 5.3M , routed unused 5.1M , unrouted assigned 3.4M , and available 0.7 . [ futher details , poster ]

In this visualization, we mapped 1-dimensional IPv4 address space into a 2-dimensional image using a 12th order Hilbert curve , as inspired by xkcd . This mapping has the visually useful property that CIDR netblocks always appear as squares or rectangles in the image.

Address blocks are labeled based on IANA's list of IPv4 allocations. Early recipients of large "class A" address blocks appear in the upper left, while the areas labeled Various Registries indicate allocations from the former "class B" and "class C" (sometimes called legacy or swamp ) regions. Since the mid-1990's Internet address space allocations are made from ICANN/IANA to the Regional Internet Registries: RIPE, APNIC, ARIN, LACNIC, and AfriNIC.

Each pixel in the original 4096 x 4096 image represents a single /24 network containing up to 256 hosts. The pixel color shows the utilization of each /24 based on the number of probe responses. Black areas represent addresses that did not respond to the probes. Blue represents low utilization (at least one response), and red represents 100% utilization.

Lander Census 2003-2006

IPv4 Census Map

This image shows the results of a census taken by the LANDER project that probed every Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) address with an ICMP echo request (ping) packet. IPv4's 32-bit address space results in 4,294,967,296 possible unique addresses. Many of these are reserved for special purposes or for future allocations, and were not included in the census. The census sets out to ping all IPv4 addresses allocated by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) with a fixed number of outstanding probes (1200) and a 5 second timeout resulting in a rate of approximately 250 probes per second [ 1 ].

This visualization of the IPv4 address space was created by The Measurement Factory under subcontract to CAIDA. CAIDA also produced a poster version with legend and descriptive text . The ANT Lab's LANDER project also publishes a similar map of the address space with a summary of the research, the datasets, and related papers .

These results give some indication of how the Internet's IPv4 address space is being used. We emphasize strongly that some hosts do not respond to the probes due to firewalls, NAT boxes, and ICMP filtering, which means these results are only a lower bound on IPv4 address utilization, arguably a deceptive lower bound. As Internet address space exhaustion and IPv6 deployment become increasingly pressing issues and policymakers confront difficult decisions on how best to allocate the remaining IPv4 space, we expect to see discussion, development, and testing of more effective empirically grounded mechanisms for assessing stewardship of IPv4 space.

The animation combines the results of the surveys from mid-2003 through 2006.

Additional images

The following images show the results of numerous surveys going back to mid-2003. Each image is 5120x4096 pixels and about 5 MB.

Census Data

The census data was provided by Information Sciences Institute at the University of Southern California. Internet Addresses Survey dataset, DHS PREDICT ID USC-LANDER/internet_address_survey_it15w-20061108. Traces taken 2006-11-08 to 2007-01-08. Provided by the USC/LANDER project. http://www.isi.edu/ant/lander/ . Additional support comes from NSF grant SCI-0427144 and ARIN but does not necessarily reflect the opinions of any of the sponsoring organizations.

1 . John Heidemann, Yuri Pradkin, Ramesh Govindan, Christos Papadopoulos, and Joseph Bannister. Exploring Visible Internet Hosts through Census and Survey . Technical Report ISI-TR-2007-640, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May, 2007.

Number Resources

We are responsible for global coordination of the Internet Protocol addressing systems, as well as the Autonomous System Numbers used for routing Internet traffic.

Currently there are two types of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in active use: IP version 4 (IPv4) and IP version 6 (IPv6). IPv4 was initially deployed on 1 January 1983 and is still the most commonly used version. IPv4 addresses are 32-bit numbers often expressed as 4 octets in “dotted decimal” notation (for example, ). Deployment of the IPv6 protocol began in 1999. IPv6 addresses are 128-bit numbers and are conventionally expressed using hexadecimal strings (for example, 2001:0db8:582:ae33::29 ).

Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses are generally assigned in a hierarchical manner. Users are assigned IP addresses by Internet service providers (ISPs). ISPs obtain allocations of IP addresses from a local Internet registry (LIR) or National Internet Registry (NIR), or from their appropriate Regional Internet Registry (RIR):

Our primary role for IP addresses is to allocate pools of unallocated addresses to the RIRs according to their needs as described by global policy and to document protocol assignments made by the IETF . When an RIR requires more IP addresses for allocation or assignment within its region, we make an additional allocation to the RIR. We do not make allocations directly to ISPs or end users except in specific circumstances, such as allocations of multicast addresses or other protocol specific needs.

IP Address Allocations

Internet protocol version 4 (ipv4).

Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6)

Autonomous System Number Allocations

Regional Internet Registry Creation

Technical Documentation

[ANT logo]

ANT Censuses of the Internet Address Space

A census of the internet address space.

(LANDER map of internet address space)

Address Block Assignments

(a sample of four address blocks)

A Census of Allocated Addresses

(legend showing color meanings on the map)

About The Internet Address Space

Why internet addresses matter, internet census taking, data privacy, visualizing the internet space.

the whole Internet; each point is a /16 subnet (65,536 addresses)

The Census by the Numbers

(poster version of our census map)

Additional Information

About our work.

Dataset Availability

Related work, credits and support information for our work.

ip address allocation map


Articles & Tutorials

Ipv4 address 2022 infographics.


An IP address is an unique address associated with a specific computer or network host. IP addresses are managed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and its regional registries to various organizations worldwide. IPv4 address uses a 32-bit address scheme. It serves as location addressing, network interface identification and so on.

Data of IPv4 address allocations in 2021 is collected. The purpose of data collection is to observe and study the usage of IPv4 address allocations in 2021. With the data collected, a report titled ‘ Internet IP Address 2022 Report ‘ is generated. The percentage of IP Address Ownership by Country is recorded and displayed in table and charts form in this report. After that, an infographic is created and displayed below to give a better understanding of IPv4 address allocations in 2021. Data like a summary of IPv4 addresses allocated, IP address allocations by continents, usage types, organizations and so on are recorded and displayed in this infographic.


Based on the infographic as shown below, there is a total of 3.37 billion public IP addresses allocated in the year 2021. The United States is the country with the most public IP address as 37% of IP addresses are allocated to it. It is clearly shown that North America has the highest IP address allocation which is 40.5% although it had decreased by 0.52% if compared to the year 2020. The IP addresses allocated to Asia has the highest increment which is 1.29% even though its total IP address allocation (26.6%) is not the highest among others.

Furthermore, there is a total of 1.85 billion IP address allocation for ISP usage type, which is the highest among other usage types like DCH, COM and so on. Over the past 5 years, it had been observed that the IP changes based on the top 5 usage types fluctuate. A huge change is observed for MOB usage type. It had a slight increase in 2018-2019 and then a huge drop in 2019-2020 and increases back in 2020-2021. For DCH usage type, it drops significantly after the year 2018-2019.

Amazon Technologies which has 46 million IP addresses and Comcast Cable Communications which has 70 million IP addresses are the highest in group Data Center and ISP respectively. In addition, IP ownership in China has the highest increment, which is 6.18 million IP addresses added in 2021 whereas IP ownership in the United States has the highest decrement, which is 8.74 million IP addresses reduced if compared to the year 2020.

Overall, the United States which is located in North America is assigned most of the IP addresses in 2021. The infographic below is for your reference to manage or make use of IP addresses in the future.

IPv4 Address 2022 Infographics

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RIPE NCC Network Coordination

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Understanding IP Addressing and CIDR Charts

Every device connected to the Internet needs to have an identifier. Internet Protocol (IP) addresses are the numerical addresses used to identify a particular piece of hardware connected to the Internet.

The two most common versions of IP in use today are Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) and Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6). Both IPv4 and IPv6 addresses come from finite pools of numbers.

For IPv4, this pool is 32-bits (2 32 ) in size and contains 4,294,967,296 IPv4 addresses. The IPv6 address space is 128-bits (2 128 ) in size, containing 340,282,366,920,938,463,463,374,607,431,768,211,456 IPv6 addresses.

A bit is a digit in the binary numeral system, the basic unit for storing information.

Not every IP address in the IPv4 or IPv6 pool can be assigned to the machines and devices used to access the Internet. Some IP addresses have been reserved for other uses, such as for use in private networks. This means that the total number of IP addresses available for allocation is less than the total number in the pool.

Network prefixes

IP addresses can be taken from the IPv4 or the IPv6 pool and are divided into two parts, a network section and a host section. The network section identifies the particular network and the host section identifies the particular node (for example, a certain computer) on the Local Area Network (LAN).

IP addresses are assigned to networks in different sized ‘blocks'. The size of the ‘block' assigned is written after an oblique (/), which shows the number of IP addresses contained in that block. For example, if an Internet Service Provider (ISP) is assigned a “/16”, they receive around 64,000 IPv4 addresses. A “/26” network provides 64 IPv4 addresses. The lower the number after the oblique, the more addresses contained in that “block”.

The size of the prefix, in bits, is written after the oblique. This is called “slash notation”. There is a total of 32 bits in IPv4 address space. For example, if a network has the address “”, the number “24” refers to how many bits are contained in the network. From this, the number of bits left for address space can be calculated. As all IPv4 networks have 32 bits, and each “section” of the address denoted by the decimal points contains eight bits, “” leaves eight bits to contain host addresses. This is enough space for 256 host addresses. These host addresses are the IP addresses that are necessary to connect your machine to the Internet.

A network numbered “” (which is one of those reserved for private use) is a network with eight bits of network prefix, denoted by “/8” after the oblique. The “8” denotes that there are 24 bits left over in the network to contain IPv4 host addresses: 16,777,216 addresses to be exact.

Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) Chart

The Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is commonly known as the CIDR chart and is used by those running networks and managing IP addresses. It enables them to see the number of IP addresses contained within each “slash notation” and the size of each “slash notation” in bits.

CIDR Chart - IPv4

Download: IPv4 CIDR Chart (PDF)

IPv6 is similar to IPv4, but it is structured so that all LANs have 64 bits of network prefix as opposed to the variable length of network prefix 1 that IPv4 networks have. All IPv6 networks have space for 18,446,744,073,709,551,616 IPv6 addresses.

CIDR Chart - IPv6

Download: IPv6 Chart (PDF)

Currently, most ISPs assign /48 network prefixes to subscribers' sites (the End Users' networks). Because all IPv6 networks have /64 prefixes, a /48 network prefix allows 65,536 LANs in an End User's site.

The current minimum IPv6 allocation made by the RIPE NCC is a /32 network prefix. If the LIR only made /48 assignments from this /32 network prefix, they would be able to make 65,536 /48 assignments. If they decided to only assign /56 network prefixes they would have 24 bits available to them, and so could make 16,777,216 /56 assignments.

For example, if a /24 IPv6 allocation is made to an LIR, it would be able to make 16,777,216 /48 assignments or 4,294,967,296 /56 assignments.

To give some perspective, it is worth noting that there are 4,294,967,296 IPv4 addresses in total, significantly less than the number of IPv6 addresses.

IPv6 Relative Network Sizes

1 RFC2526, Reserved IPv6 Subnet Anycast Addresses (Proposed Standard)

Related Items

The Regional Internet Registrars (RIRs) assign the Internet's address space. They keep a list of all allocations, the so-called delegated data. We use Geoff Huston's aggregated delegated data (from here ) to plot the unallocated space in blue colour (see figure below).

Not all allocated address space is actually routed. The Route Views Project publishes Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) routing information. We use this information to plot the unrouted space in lighter blue colour.

The following figure shows the legend for unusable, unallocated, and unrouted space.

The layout of the map is based on Randall Munroe's famous xkcd Map of the Internet . The positions of all /24 subnets are based on a continuous fractal space-filling curve first described by the German mathematician David Hilbert ( Hilbert curve ). The advantage of a Hilbert curve is that is preserves locality, meaning contiguous /24 subnets are positioned closely together in the 2D space. The same is true for any larger prefixes, e.g. all /8 prefixes are squares. The following figure shows how the Hilbert curve for the first 16 /8 prefixes.

The left half of the map is the old class A space. The top left quadrant shows the /8s directly allocated to corporations and government agencies before the RIRs were tasked with the assignment. The bottom right quadrant is the old class B space. The top right quadrant contains the old class C space and also the multicast and experimental address ranges.

Numbering of /8 prefixes

All /8 prefixes (0--255) are numbered on the map. The numbers are coloured based on the RIRs that mainly allocated IPv4 addresses from these prefixes (or for old /8 prefixes we assume the RIRs that now would assign them given the current owners country). Some /8 prefixes are hard to associate with a particular RIR, as portions have been allocated by different RIRs, and we put them into the "several" category (black). Also, the numbers of all /8 prefixes that cannot be allocated, such as (private), are coloured black. The following figure shows the RIR colour coding legend.

Data Sources

The IPv4 usage data was collected from a number of sources. The following table lists the sources, collection time periods and number of unique IPv4 addresses observed. Overall, for all datasets combined, we observed 714 million unique used IPv4 addresses until March 2013 ( 569 million addresses until August 2012).

The PING data is from multiple "ping census'" we carried out repeatedly since September 2011. Our probe machine actively probes the whole IPv4 Internet (all allocated addresses at the time). It sends an ICMP echo request and a TCP SYN (port 80) to each IP address and records the response. We consider all IP addresses as used from which we receive a positive response (either an ICMP echo reply or a TCP SYN/ACK).

The WIKI data consists of IP addresses from the edit history for all Wikipedia pages. For edits that were not made by a registered user, Wikipedia logs the IP addresses of the client from which the edit was made.

The SPAM dataset consists of IP addresses from the spam list collected by the German iX magazine.

The MLAB dataset consists of IP addresses from clients tested by M-Lab tools.

The WEB data consist of IP addresses collected by our IPv6 capability testing servers (see our IMC 2012 paper here ).

The GAME data is IP addresses collected from a major online game system. Each time a game client logs into their system a database entry is created that contains the client's IP address.

The SWIN data is IP addresses extracted from NetFlow records generated at Swinburne University's access router for all traffic flows that pass through the router.

IPv4 Internet Map March 2014 [ pdf ] [ png ] IPv4 Internet Map March 2014 without unrouted space [ pdf ] [ png ] IPv4 Internet Map March 2013 [ pdf ] [ png ] IPv4 Internet Map March 2013 without unrouted space [ pdf ] [ png ] IPv4 Internet Map August 2012 [ pdf ] [ png ] IPv4 Internet Map August 2012 without unrouted space [ pdf ] [ png ]

If you would like to get a high-resolution postscript version of the map please contact us.

Future work

We are currently working on statistical methods to estimate the used but "invisible" IPv4 addresses. In the future we will update the map based on new observed data, as well as the estimated unseen addresses.

We will also create other maps to visualise different aspects of the Internet, for example visualise statically vs. dynamically allocated space, or visualise IPv6-capable vs. non-IPv6-capable space.

Other Internet maps:

If you would like to contribute to the project (e.g. by giving us access to IPv4 address data), or have any suggestions or comments please contact Sebastian Zander ([email protected]) .

IPv4 Addressing Options

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Options After IPv4 Free Pool Depletion

ARIN’s free pool of IPv4 address space was depleted on 24 September 2015 . As a result, we no longer can fulfill requests for IPv4 addresses unless you meet certain policy requirements that reserved blocks of IPv4 addresses for special cases, such as:

If you do not qualify to receive IPv4 address space under either of these two policies, there are several other options that you may wish to explore.

Waiting List for Unmet Requests

Submit an IPv4 request and go on the Waiting List for Unmet Requests . Requests on the waiting list can only be filled when ARIN adds IPv4 address space to its available IPv4 inventory. This usually occurs after: a registrant returns IPv4 address; a revocation by ARIN (typically for non-payment of annual fees); IPv4 address space distribution to ARIN by Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA); or otherwise made available to be re-issued.

Transfers to Specified Recipients

Seek IPv4 address space via a Transfer to Specified Recipients ( NRPM 8.3 or NRPM 8.4 ).

Specified Transfer Listing Service

You can register for ARIN’s Specified Transfer Listing Service for assistance in finding organizations that ARIN has validated as having IPv4 addresses eligible for transfer.

Adoption of IPv6

To ensure the growth of your network well into the future, you might also consider requesting IPv6 address space directly from ARIN .

Phase Four processing concluded and the IPv4 Countdown Plan was retired on 1 June 2016. Please refer to the IPv4 Countdown Plan page for a description and history of this process.

Registration Services Help Desk 7:00 AM to 7:00 PM ET Phone: +1.703.227.0660 Fax: +1.703.997.8844

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  1. Study of IPv4 address allocation by continents

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  6. IP Address Allocation Process

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  3. #Arif_Alvi Blocked all escapes

  4. 11. Heap Allocation and Access

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  6. Location Tracing Process From IP Address #Shorts


  1. IPv4 Census Map

    This data and map give us a lower bound on IPv4 address utilization. ... Since the mid-1990's Internet address space allocations are made

  2. Number Resources

    Currently there are two types of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses in active ... ISPs obtain allocations of IP addresses from a local Internet registry (LIR)

  3. Hilbert Map of IPv4 address space

    Hilbert Map of IPv4 address space. GitHub Gist: instantly share code, notes, and snippets.

  4. ANT Censuses of the Internet Address Space

    The figure above shows our map of the allocated address space. ... With the Internet Protocol, version 4 (IPv4), these addresses are a number between 0 and

  5. List of assigned /8 IPv4 address blocks

    List of assigned /8 blocks to the regional Internet registriesEdit. Map of regional Internet registries. The regional Internet registries (RIR) allocate IPs

  6. IPv4 Address 2022 Infographics

    This infographic tells IPv4 address allocation in 2022. It summarizes the usage of IPv4 by continents, usage type, organization and so on.

  7. Understanding IP Addressing and CIDR Charts

    The Classless Inter-Domain Routing (CIDR) is commonly known as the CIDR chart and is used by those running networks and managing IP addresses.

  8. MAPPING -- Measuring And Practically Predicting INternet Growth

    The IPv4 Internet Map visualises the address usage. ... We can see that a large part of the old /8 allocations assigned to corporations or

  9. Request IPv4 Addresses

    As part of the community-adopted policy, a contiguous /10 IPv4 block has been set aside and dedicated to facilitate IPv6 deployment. Allocations and assignments

  10. IPv4 Addressing Options

    NRPM 4.10: organizations may request a /24 of IPv4 address space to facilitate the transition to IPv6; NRPM 4.4: micro-allocations to critical Internet