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Introduction to genetics
Genetics is a field of biology that studies how traits are passed from parents to their offspring. The passing of traits from parents to offspring is known as heredity, therefore, genetics is the study of heredity. This introduction to genetics takes you through the basic components of genetics such as DNA, genes, chromosomes and genetic inheritance.
Genetics is built around molecules called DNA. DNA molecules hold all the genetic information for an organism. It provides cells with the information they need to perform tasks that allow an organism to grow, survive and reproduce. A gene is one particular section of a DNA molecule that tells a cell to perform one specific task.
Heredity is what makes children look like their parents. During reproduction, DNA is replicated and passed from a parent to their offspring. This inheritance of genetic material by offspring influences the appearance and behavior of the offspring. The environment that an organism lives in can also influence how genes are expressed.
A DNA molecule is a nucleic acid, one of the four molecules of life . It comes in the form of a long, linear molecule referred to as a strand. Each strand of DNA is bonded to a second strand of DNA to form a DNA double helix. In eukaryotic cells , DNA is found in the nucleus as a tightly coiled double helix.
DNA molecules are replicated during cell division. When a cell divides, the two new cells contain all the same DNA that the original cell had.
In sexual reproduction with two parents, half of the DNA of the offspring is provided by each of the parents. The genetic material of a child is made from 50% of their mother’s DNA and 50% their father’s DNA.
A gene is a specific segment of a DNA molecule that holds the information for one specific protein. DNA molecules have a unique code for each gene which codes for their specific protein. Some organisms can have more than 100,000 different genes so they will have 100,000 unique sequences of DNA ‘code’.
Genes are the basic unit of heredity. The genes of an individual are determined by their parent or parents. A bacteria that is born by one parent cell splitting into two cells and has the exact same genes as their one parent cell.
Physical traits such as eye color or height are often determined by the combination of multiple genes. The environment an individual lives in also impacts how genes are expressed.
A chromosome is a structure made from tightly packed strands of DNA and proteins called histones. Strands of DNA are tightly wrapped around the histone proteins and form into long worm-shaped structures called ‘chromatids’. Two chromatids join together to form a chromosome.
The number of chromosomes varies between species. Humans have 46 chromosomes. Some species can have many more than 100 chromosomes while others can have as little as two.
Inheritance is the backbone of genetics and is an important topic to cover in an introduction to genetics. Long before DNA had been discovered and the word ‘genetics’ had been invented, people were studying the inheritance of traits from one generation to the next.
Genetic inheritance occurs both in sexual reproduction and asexual reproduction . In sexual reproduction, two organisms contribute DNA to produce a new organism. In asexual reproduction, one organism provides all the DNA and produces a clone of themselves. In either, genetic material is passed from one generation to the next.
Experiments performed by a monk named Gregor Mendel provided the foundations of our current understanding of how genetic material is passed from parents to their offspring.
Last edited: 31 August 2020
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Introduction to Genetics (Assignment) 5.0 (17 reviews) Term 1 / 4 In fruit flies, straight wings are dominant and curly wings are recessive. What will the generations look like? Assume that Mendel's method of crossing two true breeding parents with opposite traits is followed. Check all that apply. Click the card to flip 👆 Definition 1 / 4
Introduction to Genetics. Genetics is the study of how genes bring about characteristics, or traits, in living things and how those characteristics are inherited. Genes are specific sequences of nucleotides that code for particular proteins. Through the processes of meiosis and sexual reproduction, genes are transmitted from one generation to ...
Genetics: The study of biological inheritance: Trait: A specific characteristic of an individual: Gene: A unit of heredity that is passed from parent to offspring: Allele: One of different forms of a gene: Genotype: The genetic makeup of an organism (ex: TT) Phenotype: The physical characteristics of an organism (ex: tall) Dominant allele
Introduction To Genetics (BIO 20600) University The City College of New York Introduction To Genetics Follow this course Documents (66) Messages Students (47) Book related documents Thompson & Thompson Genetics in Medicine Robert L. Nussbaum Lecture notes Date Rating year Ratings Genetics Lecture Notes 21 pages …
Course Description This course discusses the principles of genetics with application to the study of biological function at the level of molecules, cells, and multicellular organisms, including humans. The topics include: structure and function of genes, chromosomes and genomes, biological variation resulting from recombination, … Course Info
Introduction to genetics DNA. DNA is the cornerstone of genetics and is the perfect place to start for an introduction to genetics. Genes. A gene is a specific segment of a DNA molecule that holds the information for one specific protein. DNA molecules... Chromosomes. A chromosome is a structure ...
DNA is responsible for traits. A section of DNA that codes for a specific trait is called a gene. Half of your DNA comes from each parent. Your traits are a combination of your parents' traits. DNA is the blueprint for proteins, which play many roles in the body.
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Genetics. the science of heredity. heredity. the transmission of traits from parents to offspring. species characteristics. a trait common to a group of organisms. individual characteristics. traits that make one organism unique within a group. purebred.
A scientist wants to examine a genetic disease in humans. The scientist hypothesizes that the disease can be treated by using gene therapy. Humans take a long time to reproduce and develop, so the scientist will have to... develop new methods to test the hypothesis. Scientists often use fruit flies as a method to test hypotheses about human genes.